Background/Aim: Gender determination is one of the most challenging tasks in medico-legal research and forensic dentistry. Several skeletal components are investigated for this purpose and the mandible is one of them. The mandible has several specific anatomical features. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of measurements related to the mental foramen, gonial angle and antegonial angle on gender determination using digital panoramic radiographs.
Material and Methods: A retrospective study was planned with 150 digital panoramic radiographs (75 males and 75 females, aged between 20 to 49 years). The radiographs were analyzed by dividing them into two equal gender groups (male and female). Several parameters were compared to determine the gender. The distances from the superior and inferior border of the mental foramen to the basis of the mandible on the right side were measured. Gonial and antegonial angles were evaluated bilaterally. The difference between the males and females were analyzed with independent samples t-test (p<0.05).
Results: There was statistically significant difference between the males and females in terms of all the evaluated parameters (p<0.05). The distances related to mental foramen is higher in the males however gonial and antegonial angles are larger in the females.
Conclusions: The mental foramen position, gonial and antegonial angles can be used to predict the gender in Turkish population.
Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.
1. Saini V, Srivastava R, Rai RK, Shamal SN, Singh TB, Tripathi SK. Mandibular ramus: an indicator for sex in fragmentary mandible. J Forensic Sci, 2011;56:13-16.
2. Suragimath G, Ashwinirani SR, Christopher V, Bijjargi S, Pawar R, Nayak A. Gender determination by radiographic analysis of mental foramen in the Maharashtra population of India. J Forensic Dent Sci, 2016;8:176-80.
3. Indira AP, Markande A, David MP. Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex determination - A digital radiographic study. J Forensic Dent Sci, 2012;4:58-62.
4. Scheuer L. Application of osteology to forensic medicine. Clin Anat, 2002;15:297-312.
5. Rupa KR, Chatra L, Shenai P, Veena KM, Rao PK, Prabhu RV et al. Gonial angle and ramus height as sex determinants: A radiographic pilot study. J Cranio Max Dis, 2015;4:111-116.
6. Ghodousi A, Sheikhi M, Zamani E, Gale-Bakhtiari S, Jahangirmoghaddam M. The value of panoramic radiography in gender specification of edentulous Iranian population. J Dent Mater Tech, 2013;2:45-49.
7. Abu-Taleb NS, El Beshlawy DM. Mandibular ramus and gonial angle measurements as predictors of sex and age in an Egyptian population sample: a digital panoramic radiographic study. J Forensic Res, 2015;6:1-7.
8. Duric M, Rakocevic Z, Donic D. The reliability of sex determination of skeletons from forensic context in the Balkans. Forensic Sci Int, 2005;147:159-164.
9. Hu KS, Koh KS, Han SH, Shin KJ, Kim HJ. Sex determination using nonmetric characteristics of the mandible in Koreans. J Forensic Sci, 2006;51:1376-1382.
10. Huumonen S, Sipilä K, Haikola B, Tapio M, Söderholm AL, Remes-Lyly T et al. Influence of edentulousness on gonial angle, ramus and condylar height. J Oral Rehabil, 2010;37:34-38.
11. Thakur M, Reddy VK, Sivaranjani Y, Khaja S. Gender determination by mental foramen and height of the body of the mandible in dentulous patients a radiographic study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med, 2014;36:13-18.
12. Leversha J, McKeough G, Myrteza A, Skjellrup-Wakefiled H, Welsh J, Sholapurkar A. Age and gender correlation of gonail angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland. J Clin Exp Dent, 2015;8:49-54.
13. Schulze R, Krummenauer F, Schalldach F, d’Hoedt B. Precision and accuracy of measurements in digital panoramic radiography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol, 2000;29:52-56.
14. Chole RH, Patil RN, Balsaraf Chole S, Gondivkar S, Gadbail AR, Yuwanati MB. Association of mandible anatomy with age, gender, and dental status: a radiographic study. ISRN Radiology, 2013;18:453763.
15. Kitai N, Mukai Y, Murabayashi M, Kawabata A, Washino K, Matsuoka M et al. Measurement accuracy with a new dental panoramic radiographic technique based on tomosynthesis. Angle Orthod, 2013;83:117-126.
16. Bhardwaj D, Kumar JS, Mohan V. Radiographic evaluation of mandible to predict the gender and age. J Clin Diagn Res, 2014;8:66-69.
17. Ghosh S, Vengal M, Pai KM. Remodeling of the human mandible in the gonial angle region: a panoramic, radiographic, cross-sectional study. Oral Radiol, 2009;25:2-5.
18. Raustia AM, Salonen MA. Gonial angles and condylar and ramus height of the mandible in complete denture wearers- a panoramic radiograph study. J Oral Rehabil, 1997;24:512-516.
19. Xie QF, Ainamo A. Correlation of gonial angle size with cortical thickness, height of the mandibular residual body, and duration of edentulism. J Prosthet Dent, 2004;91:477-482.
20. Kharoshah MA, Almadani O, Ghaleb SS, Zaki MK, Fattah YA. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a modern Egyptian population. J Forensic Leg Med, 2010;17:213-215.
21. Gungor K, Sagir M, Ozer I. Evaluation of the gonial angle in the Anatolian populations: from past to present. Coll Antropol, 2007;31:375-378.
22. Upadhyay RB, Upadhyay J, Agrawal P, Rao NN. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods. J Forensic Dent Sci, 2012;4:29-33.
23. Ohm E, Silness J. Size of the mandibular jaw angle related to age, tooth retention and gender. J Oral Rehabil, 1999;26:883-891.
24. Mahapatra GK, Nar OP, Joshi SN. Evaluation of radiographic predictors to assess the rate of mandibular residual ridge resorption. Indian J Dent Res, 2004;15:24-27.
25. Naroor N, Shenai P, Chatra L, Veena KM, Rao PK, Shetty P. Gender determination using the mental foramen. J Cranio Max Dis, 2015;4:144-147.