Since the end of the 20th century, the problems of the temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have aroused interest to the orthodontists. The aim of this literature review is to present the contemporary evidence concerning the association between the presence of malocclusions and the occurrence of signs and symptoms of the TMJ. In addition, additional variables, which may affect the TMJs of a patient during the orthodontic treatment are pointed out. It is evident that there is an increased number of patients who are seeking for orthodontic treatment, not only in order to enhance their facial aesthetics and the function of mastication system, but also to relieve the symptoms of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). There are multiple etiological factors that have been associated with the TMDs and they may be manifested by pain and/or sounds of TMJ. In addition, during the clinical examination it can be detected a deviation from the normal function of the mandible.
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