In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA) and dental behavior problems (DBP) were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.
1. Zarevski P, Škrinjarić I, Vranić A. Psihologija za stomatologe. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap; 2005.
2. Essau CA, Ollendick TH (editors). The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. New Delhi: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2013.
3. Liddell A, Gosse V. Characteristics of early unpleasant dental experiences. J Behav Ther & Exp Psychiat, 1998; 29:227-237.
4. Ost LG. Age of onset in different phobias. J Abnorm Psychol, 1987; 96(3):223-229.
5. Locker D, Liddell A, Dempster L, Shapiro D. Age of Onset of Dental Anxiety. J Dent Res, 1999; 78(3):790-796.
6. Bajrić E. Evaluation of dental fear and anxiety in children of different age groups [Master Thesis]. Sarajevo: University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Dentistry, 2010.
7. Bajrić E. Analysis of dental fear and anxiety during administration of different versions of Dental subscale of Children’s fear survey schedule [PhD Thesis]. Sarajevo: University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Dentistry, 2014.
8. Klingberg G, Raadal M, Arnrup K. Dental fear and behavior management problems. In: Koch G, Poulsen S (editors). Pediatric Dentistry. A Clinical Approach. Second edition. Chapter 4. Oxford; Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
9. Gustafsson A, Broberg A, Bodin L, Berggren U, Arnrup K. Dental behaviour management problems: the role of child personal characteristics. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2010; 20:242-253.
10. Klingberg G. Dental anxiety and behaviour management problems in paediatric dentistry-a review of background factors and diagnostics. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2008; 9 (Suppl. 1):11-15.
11. Van Meurs P, Howard KE, Versloot J, Veerkamp JSJ, Freeman R. Child coping strategies, dantal anxiety and dental treatment: the influence of age, gender and childhood prevalence. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2005 Dec;6(4):173-8.
12. Ray J, Wide Boman U, Bodin L, Berggren U, Lichtenstein P, Broberg AG. Heritability of Dental Fear. J Dent Res, 2010 89(3):297-301.
13. Marsac ML. Relationships among Psychological Functioning, Dental Anxiety, Pain Perception, and Coping in Children and Adolescents [PhD Thesis]. Toledo: University of Toledo, 2008.
14. Versloot J, Veerkamp JSJ, Hoogstraten J, Martens LC. Children’s coping with pain during dental care. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2004; 32:456-461.
15. Larochette AC, Chambers CT, Craig KD. Genuine, suppressed and faked facial expressions of pain in children. Pain, 2006; 126:64-71.
16. van Wijk AJ, Hoogstraten J. Experience with Dental Pain and Fear of Dental Pain. J Dent Res, 2005; 84(10):947-950.
17. Versloot J, Veerkamp JSJ, Hoogstraten J. Children’s selfreported pain at the dentist. Pain, 2008; 137(2):389-94.
26. Oosterink FM, de Jongh A, Aartman IH. What are people afraid of during dental treatment? Anxiety-provoking capacity of 67 stimuli characteristic of the dental setting. Eur J Oral Sci, 2008; 116(1):44-51.
27. Moore R, Brødsgaard I. Dentists’ perceived stress and its relation to perceptions about anxious patients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2001; 29(1):73-80.
28. Davidovich E, Pessov Y, Baniel A, Ram D. Levels of Stress among General Practitioners, Students and Specialists In Pediatric Dentistry during Dental Treatment. J Clin Padiatr Dent, 2015; 39(5):419-422.
29. Rønneberg A, Strøm K, Skaare AB, Willumsen T, Espelid I. Dentists’ self-perceived stress and difficulties when performing restorative treatment in children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2015; 16(4):341-347.
30. Önçağ O, Ersin NK, Çicek S, Çoğulu D. Behavioural Changes of Young Uncooperative Children Undergoing Dental Treatment in the Clinic versus Under General Anaesthesia. Balk J Dent Med, 2007;11(2):116-122
31. Strøm K, Rønneberg A, Skaare AB, Espelid I, Willumsen T. Dentists’ use of behavioural management techniques and their attitudes towards treating paediatric patients with dental anxiety. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2015; 16(4):349-355.
32. Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Dental fear/anxiety and dental behavior management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychological factors. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2007; 17: 391-406.
33. Rachman S. The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: a critical examination. Behav Res Ther, 1977; 15:375-387.
34. Langley AK, Bergman RL, Piacentini JC. Assessment of childhood anxiety. Int Rev Psychiatry, 2002; 14:102-113.
35. Luoto A, Tolvanen M, Rantavuori K, Pohiola V, Lahti S. Can parents and children evaluate each other’s dental fear? Eur J Oral Sci, 2010; 118(3):254-258.
36. Gustafsson A, Arnrup K, Broberg AG, Bodin L, Berggren U. Child dental fear as measured with the Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule: the impact of referral status and type of informant (child versus parent). Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2010; 38:256-266.
37. Krikken JB, Van Wijk AJ, Ten Cate JM, Veerkamp JSJ. Measuring dental fear using the CFSS-DS. Do children and parents agree? Int J Paediatr Dent, 2013; 23:94-100.
38. de Oliveira VJ, da Costa LR, Marcelo VC, Lima AR. Mothers’ perceptions of children’s refusal to undergo dental treatment: an exploratory qualitative study. Eur J Oral Sci, 2006; 114(6):471-477.
39. Wondimu B, Dahllöf G. Attitudes of Swedish dentists to pain and pain management during dental treatment of children and adolescents. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2005; 6(2):66-72.
40. Murtomaa H, Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Vuopio T. Dentists’ perceptions and management of pain experienced by children during treatment: a survey of groups of dentists in the USA and Finland. Int J Paediatr Dent, 1996; 6:25-30.
41. Rasmussen JK, Frederiksen JA, Hallonsten AL, Poulsen S. Danish dentists’ knowledge, attitudes and management of procedural dental pain in children: association with demographic characteristics, structural factors, perceived stress during the administration of local analgesia and their tolerance towards pain. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2005; 15:159-168.
42. Klaassen M, Veerkamp J, Hoogstraten J. Predicting dental anxiety. The clinical value of anxiety questionnaires: an explorative study. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 2003; 4(4):171-176.
43. Arapostathis KN, Coolidge T, Emmanouil D, Kotsanos N. Reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2008; 18(5):374-379.
44. Yamada MKM, Tanabe Y, Sano T, Noda T. Cooperation during dental treatment: the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule in Japanese children. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2002; 12:404-409.
45. Klingberg G. Reliability and validity of the Swedish version of the Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule, CFSS-DS. Acta Odontol Scand, 1994; 52:255-256.