Morphological and cytological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. and Euthamia Nutt.) from south-western Poland

Magdalena Szymura 1 , Tomasz H. Szymura 2  and Agnieszka Kreitschitz 3
  • 1 Department of Agroecosystems and Green Areas Management, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 24A, 53-363 Wrocław, Poland
  • 2 Mountain and Polar Ecosystems Laboratory Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wrocław University, pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50-328 Wrocław, Poland
  • 3 Department of Plant Morphology and Development, University of Wrocław, Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wrocław, Poland


Correlations between the morphology and cytology of invasive species and the effectiveness of invasion are among the most interesting questions in invasion ecology. Amongst exceptionally successful worldwide plant invaders, species of goldenrod (Solidago and Euthamia) are considered. The main aim of the study was to compare the morphology (concerning life traits) and cytology of the selected goldenrods occurring in south-western Poland with the effectiveness of their invasion. The results of the study, conducted in south-western Poland, showed that life traits of invasive Solidago and Euthamia taxa were clearly not connected with the effectiveness of invasion. The most widespread species, S. gigantea and S. altissima, had the highest ramets and uncommon species such as Euthamia graminifolia and S. virgaurea had short ramets. However, S. canadensis, which is tall, is also uncommon. The most frequent species (S. gigantea) produced smaller inflorescence than less frequent species (S. altissima, S. canadensis and Euthamia graminifolia). The spread of particular taxa was also not connected with the ploidy level and DNA content.

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