The effect of habitat conditions on the abundance of populations and selected individual and floral traits of Impatiens glandulifera Royle

Open access


The effect of site conditions on the abundance of populations of I. glandulifera, selected individual features (height and width of stems, number of whorls and side branches, flower production), and floral traits (total length of flowers, length and width of lower sepal, spur length) were investigated in years 2013-14. Observations were conducted on fallow land, at roadsides, along riverbanks and edges of a riparian forest as well as in a willow thicket and a riparian forest inside located in the Vistula River valley in southern Poland. In these stands, taken successively, light availability gradually diminished, while plant canopy height and soil moisture increased. The low abundance of the population on the fallow land may have been caused by low soil humidity triggering seedling mortality, whereas the low abundance in the interior of the riparian forest may have been due to seasonal water stagnation hampering the development of offspring. The increasing values of individual traits from the fallow land to riparian forest edge might be linked to growing lateral shade, whereas the much lower values in the willow thicket and forest interior might be caused by full shade. Individuals growing on the fallow land, at roadsides, and along riverbanksproduced flowers with small total lengths and large lower sepals and spurs, whereas individuals occurring in willow thickets and riparian forests showed opposite tendency. The considerable stem dimensions and substantial production of large flowers may augment chances for successful resource capture and pollinator visits in open sites, while the reduced size of individuals and moderate production of small flowers may be sufficient for the maintenance of populations in closed habitats

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Andrews M. Maule H. G. Hodge S. Cherrill A. & Rav en J. A. 2009. Seed dormancy nitrogen nutrition and shade acclimation of Impatiens glandulifera: implications for successful invasion of deciduous woodland. Plant Ecology and Diversity 2(2): 145-153.

  • Andrews M. Maule H. G. Raven J. A. & Mistry A. 2005. Extension growth of Impatiens glandulifera at low irradiance: importance of nitrate and potassium accumulation. Ann. Bot. 95: 641-648.

  • Balogh L. 2008. Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle). In: Z. Bott a-Dukát & L. Balogh (eds.). The most important invasive plants in Hungary pp: 129-137. Institute of Ecology and Botany Hungarian Academy of. Sciences Vácrátót Hungary.

  • Benningt on C. C. & McGraw J. C. 1995. Natural selectionand ecotypic differentiation in Impatiens pallida.Ecol. Monogr. 65(3): 303-324.

  • Bartomeus I. Montserrat Vilá M. & Steff an-Dewenter I. 2010. Combined effects of Impatiens glandulifera invasion and landscape structure on native plant pollination. J. Ecol. 98: 440-450.

  • Berling D. J. & Perrins J. M. 1993. Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Impatiens royleyi Walp.). J. Ecol. 81: 367-382.

  • Boberg E. & Ågren J. 2009. Despite their apparent integration spur length but not perianth size affects reproductive success in the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia. Funct. Ecol. 23: 1022-1028.

  • Boberg E. Alexandersson R. Jonsson M. Maad J. Ågren J. & Nilsson L. A. 2013. Pollinator shifts and the evolution of spur length in the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia. Ann. Bot. 113(2): 267-275.

  • Chmura D. Csontos P. & Sendek A. 2013. Seed mass variation in central European populations of invasive Impatiens glandulifera Royle. Polish J. Ecol. 61(4): 805-809.

  • Clements D. R. Feenstra K. R. Jones K. & Staniforth R. 2008. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 9. Impatiens glandulifera Royle. Can. J. Plant Sci. 88(2): 403-417.

  • Donohue K. & Schm itt J. 1999. The genetic architecture of plasticity to density in Impatiens capensis. Evolution 53(5): 1377-1386.

  • Drewnik M. Żyła M. & wójcik S. 2007. Gleby. In: I. Jędrychows ki (ed.). Atlas otoczenia Kampusu 600-lecia Odnowienia Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego pp. 46-47. Uniwersytet Jagielloński Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej.

  • Dubiel E. & Szwag rzyk J. (eds.) 2008. Atlas roślinności rzeczywistej Krakowa. 159 pp. Urząd Miasta Krakowa Wydział Kształtowania Środowiska Kraków.

  • Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1995. Genetic differentiation in morphological responses to simulated foliage shade between populations of Impatiens capensis from open and woodland sites. Funct. Ecol. 9(3): 655-666.

  • Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1996. Testing the adaptive plasticity hypothesis: Density-dependent selection on manipulated stem length in Impatiens capensis. Amer. Nat. 147: 445-465.

  • Fulton M. & Hodges S. A. 1999. Floral isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens. Proc. Royal Soc. B: Biol. Sci. 266 (1435): 2247-2252.

  • Gruntma n M. Pehl A. K. Josh i S. & Tielboerger K. 2014. Competitive dominance of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera: using competitive effect and response with a vigorous neighbour. Biological Invasions 16(1): 141-151.

  • Hejda M. & Pyšek P. 2006. What is the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on species diversity of invaded riparian vegetation? Biol. Conserv. 132(2): 143-152.

  • Hejda M. Pyšek P. & Jarošik V. 2009. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness diversity and composition of invaded communities. J. Ecol. 97(3): 393-403.

  • Herrera C. M. 1990. The adaptedness of the floral phenotype in a relict endemic hawkmoth-pollinated violet. 1. Reproductive correlates of floral variation. Biol. J. Lin. Soc. 40: 263-274.

  • Hurlbert A. H. Aki Hosoi S. Témeles E. J. & Ewa ld P. W. 1996. Mobility of Impatiens capensis flowers: Effect on pollen deposition and hummingbird foraging. Oecologia 105: 243-246.

  • Hulme P. E. & Bremner E. T. 2007. Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. J. Appl. Veg. 43(1): 43-50.

  • Jouret M. F. 1977. Effect on gibberellic-acid on dormancy breaking of Impatiens parviflora Impatiens glandulifera and Impatiens balfourii seeds. Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique Belgique 110(1-2): 113-118.

  • Johnson S. D. & Steiner K. E. 1997.Long-tongued fly pollination and evolution of floral spur length in the Disa draconis complex (Orchidaceae). Evolution 51(1): 45-53.

  • Kollmann J. & Bañuelos M. J. 2004. Latitudinal trends in growth and phenology of the invasive alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae). Diversity Distrib. 10: 377-385.

  • Kondracki J. 2000. Geografia regionalna Polski. 440 pp. PWN Warszawa.

  • Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt K. & Zając M. 2014. The influence of habitat conditions on the performance of two invasive annuals - Impatiens glandulifera and Bidens frondosa Biologia 69(4): 449-462.

  • Murph y G. P. & Dudley S. A. 2009. Kin recognition: Competition and cooperation in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Am. J. Bot. 96(11): 1990-1996.

  • Lamb don P. W. Pyšek P. Basnou C. Hejda M. Arianoutsou M. Essl F. Jarošík V. Pergl J. Winter M. Anastasiu P. Andriopoulos P. Bazos I. Brundu G. Celesti- Grapow L. Chassot P. Delipetrou P. Jossefson M. Kark S. Klotz S. Kokkoris Y. Kühn I. Marchante H. Perglová I. Pino J. Vilá Zikos A. Roy D. B. & Hulme P. E. 2008. Alien flora of Europe: species diversity temporal trends geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia 80: 101-149.

  • Little K. J. Dieringer G. & Romano M. 2005. Pollination ecology genetic diversity and selection on nectar spur length in Platanthera lacera (Orchidaceae). Plant Species Biology 20(3): 183-190.

  • Mack R. N. Simberloff D. Lonsdale W. M. Eva ns H. Clout M. & Bazzaz F. A. 2000. Biotic invasions: Causes epidemiology global consequences and control. Ecol Appl 10: 689-710.[0689:bicegc];2

  • Nienhuis C. M. & Stout J.C. 2009. Effectiveness of native bumblebees as pollinators of the alien invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) in Ireland. Journal of Pollination Ecology 1(1): 1-11.

  • Perrins J. Fitt er A. & Williamson M. 1993. Population biology and rates of invasion of three introduced Impatiens species In the British Isles. J. Biogeogr. 20: 33-44.

  • Piskorz R. 2005. The effect of oak-hornbeam diversity on flowering and fruiting of Impatiens parviflora. Rocz. AR. Pozn. CCCLXXIII Bot-Stec. 9: 187-196.

  • Prach K. 1994. Seasonal dynamics of Impatiens glandulifera in two riparian habitats in central England. In: de Waa l L. C. (ed.). Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants pp 127-133. John Wiley

  • Sohns Chichester. Jarošík V. Hulme P. E. Pergl J. Hejda M. Schaff ner U. & Vilà M. 2012. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures invading species’ traits and environment. Global Change Biology 18: 1725-1737.

  • Schmidt J. Eccleston J. & Ehrhardt D. W. 1987. Densitydependent flowering phenology outcrossing and reproduction in Impatiens capensis. Oecologia 72(3): 341-347.

  • Skálová H. Jarošík V. Dvořáčková S. & Pyšek P. 2013. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture. Plos One 8(5): e62842. 10.1371/journal.pone.0062842

  • Skálová H. Havličková V. & Pyšek P. 2012. Seedling traits plasticity and local differentiation as strategies of invasive species of Impatiens in Central Europe. Ann. Bot. 110(7): 1429-1438.

  • Skiba S. Drewnik M. Kacprzak A. Żyła M. & Żelazowska E. 2005. Pokrywa glebowa rejonu Kampusu Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. In: B. Domański & S. Skiba (eds.). Geografia i Sacrum I pp. 161-169. Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej Kraków.

  • Sletv old N. Grindeland J. M. & Ågren J. 2010. Pollinatormediated selection on floral display spur length and flowering phenology in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica. New Phytol. 188(2): 385-92.

  • Tanner R. A. Varia S. Eschen R. Wood S. Murphy S. T. & Gange A. C. 2013. Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed Impatiens glandulifera on above- and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom. PlosOne 8(6): e67271.

  • Tian J. Liu K. & Hu G. 2004. Pollination ecology and pollination system of Impatiens reptans (Balsaminaceae) endemic to China. Ann. Bot. 93: 167-175.

  • Titze A. 2000. The efficiency of insect pollination of the neophyte Impatiens glandulifera ( Balsaminaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 20: 33-42.

  • Ugolett i P. Stout J. C. & Jones M. B. 2011. Ecophysiological traits of invasive and noninvasive introduced Impatiens species. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 111(3): 1-14.

  • Walters B. B. 1996. Effect of canopy gaps and flower patch size on pollinator visitation of Impatiens capensis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123(3): 184-188.

  • Weing C. Gravuer K. A. Kane N. C. & Schm itt J. 2004. Testing adaptive plasticity to UV: costs and benefits of stem elongation and light-induced phenolics. Evolution 58(12): 2645-2656.

  • Willis S. G. & Hulme P. E. 2004. Environmental severity and variation in the reproductive traits of Impatiens glandulifera. Funt. Ecol. 18: 887-898.

  • Wilson P. 1995. Selection for pollination success and the mechanical fit of Impatiens flowers around bumblebee bodies. Biol J Linn Soc 55: 355-383.

  • Winter M. Schweiger O. Klotz S. Nentwig W. Andriopoulos P. Arianoutsou M. Bas nou C. Delipetrou P. Didziulis V. Hejda M. Hulme P. E. Lambdon P. W. Pergl J. Pyšek P. Roy D. B. & Kuhn I. 2009. Plant extinctions and introductions lead to phylogenetic and taxonomic homogenization of the European flora. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 21721-21725.

  • Vitousek P. M. D’Antonio C. M. Loope L. L. & Westbrooks R. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84: 468-487.

  • Vervoort A. Cawoy V. & Jacquemart A. L. 2011. Comparative reproductive biology in occurring invasive and native Impatiens species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 172(3): 366-377.

  • Young H. I. 2008. Selection on spur shape in Impatiens capensis. Oecologia 156: 535-543.

  • Zybartaite L. Zukauskiene J. Jodinskiene M. Janssens S. B. Paulauskas A. & Kupcinskiene E. 2011. RAPD analysis of genetic diversity among Lithuanian populations of Impatiens glandulifera. Žemdirbystė- Agriculture 98(4): 391-398.

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 246 103 1
PDF Downloads 107 60 2