Differences in the ultrastructure of two selected taxa of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified Lake Holzmaar (Germany)

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents the results of ultrastructural studies and ecological aspects of some phytoplankton species belonging to the groups of cyanobacteria (Planktothrix rubescens, Synechocystis aquatilis) and green algae (Desmodesmus grahneisii). Specimens were collected during summertime from the mesotrophic and stratified Lake Holzmaar (Western Germany) as planktonic forms from the pelagic zone. The highest cyanobacterium concentration was detected in the metalimnion, where the alkaline pH, low phosphorus and high nitrogen contents were recorded. P. rubescens was characterized by straight filaments up to 1000 μm long and 5.4-8 μm wide and numerous aerotopes in cells. The accompanying algae were identified by ultrastructural analysis and photographic documentation was provided. In the case of D. grahneisii, chloroplast was situated in the parietal part of cell, with one large, oval pyrenoid and, in addition, the granular and spiny cell wall was an important taxonomical criterium for the Desmodesmus genus. This is in contrast with the cyanobacterium S. aquatilis, in which a homogeneous content with visible chromatoplasma was mostly distributed throughout the cell. This algal association was stable in the epilimnion characterized by the presence of high temperature, pH values (>8), nitrate nitrogen and oxygen concentrations

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • An S. Friedl T. & Hegewald E. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Scenedesmus and Scenedesmus-like coccoid green algae as inferred from ITS-2 rDNA sequence comparisons. Plant Biol. 1: 418-428. Doi: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1999.tb00724.x

  • Anagnostidis K. & Komárek J. 1988. Modern approach to the classification system of Cyanophytes 3-Oscillatoriales. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl Algol Stud. 80(1-4): 327-472.

  • Fanés T. Comas G. & Sánchez C. 2009. Catálogo de las algas verdes cocales de las aquas continentales de Andalucía. Acta Botanica Malacitana 34: 1-22.

  • Fawley M. Fawley K. & Hegewald E. 2011. Taxonomy of Desmodesmus serratus (Chlorophyceae Chlorophyta) and related taxa on the basis of morphological and DNA sequence data. Phycologia 50(1): 23-56. Doi: 10.2216/10-16.1

  • Feuillad e M. & Davies A. 1994. Seasonal variation and longterm trends in phytoplankton pigments. Arch Hydrobiol Beih. 41: 95-111.

  • Garibaldi L. Anzani A. Marieni A. Leoni B. & Mosello R. 2003. Studies on the phytoplankton of the deep subalpine Lake Iseo. J. Limnol. 62: 177-189.

  • Hegewald E. 2000. New combinations in the genus Desmodesmus (Chlorophyceae Scenedesmaceae). Algological Studies 96: 1-18.

  • Hegewald E. & Silva P. 1988. Annotated catalogue of Scenedesmus and nomenclaturally related genera including original descriptions and figures. Bibl. Phycol. 80: 1-587.

  • Hindák F. & Hindáková A. 2000. Checklist of the cyanophytes/ cyanobacteria and algae of the Slovak stretch of the Danube river (1926-1999). Biologia Bratislava 55: 7-34.

  • Järnefelt H. 1952. Plankton als indikator der trophiegruppen der seen. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae 18:1-29.

  • John D. M. Whitton B. A. & Brook A. J. 2011. The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. II pp. 1-878. Natural History Museum London Cambridge University Press.

  • Komárek J. & Anagnostidis K. 1989. Modern approach to the classification system of Cyanophytes. 4 - Nostocales. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl Algol Stud. 82(3): 247-345.

  • Komárek J. & Anagnostidis K. 1999. Cyanoprokaryota. 1. Chroococcales. In: H. Ettl G. Gärtner H. Heyning & D. Mollenhauer (eds.). Süβwasserflora von Mitteleuropa 19(1): 1-548. Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart Jena New York.

  • Komárek J. & Fott B. 1983. Chlorophyceae (Grünalgen) Ordnung Chlorococcales. In: G. Huber-Pestalozzi (ed.). Das Phytoplankton des Süβwassers. Die Binnengewässer 16 7/1 pp. 1-1044. Stuttgart Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Doi: 10.1002/aheh.19850130219

  • Komárek J. & Komárkova J. 2004. Taxonomic review of the cyanoprokaryotic genera Planktothrix and Planktothricoides. Czech Phycology Olomouc 4: 1-18.

  • Konopka A. 1980. Physiological changes within a metalimnetic layer of Oscillatoria rubescens. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 40(3): 681-684.

  • Kurmayer R. & Jeüttner F. 1999. Strategies for the coexistence of zooplankton with the toxic cyanobaterium Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Züric.J. Plankton Res. 21: 659-683.

  • Legnani E. Copetti D. Oggioni A. Tartari G. Palumbo M.T. & Moraito G. 2005. Planktothrix rubescens seasonal dynamics and vertical distribution in Lake Pusiano (North Italy). J. Limnol. 64(1): 61-73.

  • Lenard T. 2009. Metalimnetic bloom of Planktothrix rubescens in relation to environmental conditions. Oceanol. and Hydrobiol. Studies 2: 45-53.

  • Messyasz B. Czerwik-Marcinkowska J. & Lücke A. 2006. Ultrastructural observations on some species of cyanobacteria and green alga in the Lake Holzmaar. Proceedings 2nd Croatian Congress on Microscopy pp. 108-110.

  • Messyasz B. Lücke A. & Schleser G. H. 2003. Dominance of cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens (D.C. ex Gom.) Anagn. et Kom. in Lake Holzmaar Germany - an indication of the trophic status? Acta Botanica Warmiae et Masuriae 3: 21-31.

  • Messyasz B. Lücke A. & Schleser G. H. 2005. Comparison of the spring and summer phytoplankton in stratified lakes: Kociolek (Poland) and Holzmaar (Germany). Phycologia 36(4): 68-69.

  • Omlin M. Reichert P. & Forster R. 2001. Biogeochemical model of Lake Zürich: model equations and results Ecological Modelling 141: 77-103.

  • Raubitsch ek S. Lücke A. & Sch leser G. H. 1999. Sedimentation patterns of diatoms in Lake Holzmaar Germany - (on the transfer of climate signals to biogenic silic oxygen isotope proxies). J. Paleolimnology 21(4): 437-448. Doi: 1023/A:1008022532458

  • Reynolds C. S. 1984. The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. 384 pp. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

  • Reynolds C. S. 1996. The plant life of the pelagic. Verhandlungen International Verein Limnology 26: 97-113.

  • Reynolds C. S. 2006. The Ecology of Phytoplankton. 535 pp. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

  • Reynolds E. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17(1): 208-212. Doi: 10.1083/jcb.17.1.208 Sch arf B. W. & Oehms M. 1992. Physical and chemical characteristics. In B. W. Scharf & S. Björk (eds.). Limnology of Eifel maar lakes. Advances in Limnology 38: 63-83.

  • Scheffer M. S. Rinaldi A. Gragnani L. R. Mur E. & Van Nes E. H. 1997. On the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria in shallow turbid lakes. Ecology 78(1): 272-282.

  • Schmidt A. Fehér G. & Padisák J. 2003. Some rare green algae occurring in the Danube river and its deadand side-branches in Southern Hungary. Biologia Bratislava. 58(4): 475-481.

  • Schubert L. E. & Wilk-Woźniak E. 2003. SEM investigation of several non-motile coccoid green algae occurring in different types of water bodies. Biologia 58(4): 459-466.

  • Skulberg O. M. Undertal B. & Utkilen H. 1994. Toxic waterblooms with cyanophytes in Norway - current knowledge. Algol. Stud. 75: 279-289.

  • Starmach K. 1966. Cyanophyta-sinice Glaucophyta-glaukofity. In: K. Starmach (ed.). Flora słodkowodna Polski 2 753 pp. PAN PWN Warszawa.

  • Suda S. Watanabe M. Otsuka S. Mahakahant A. Yongmanitchai W. Nopartnaraporn N. Liu Y. & Day J. G. 2002. Taxonomic revision of water-bloom forming species of osillatorioid cyanobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 1577-1595.

  • Walsb y A. E. Avery A. & Sch anz F. 1998. The critical pressures of gas vesicles in Planktothrix rubescens in relation to the depth of winter mixing in Lake Zurich (Switzerland). J. Plankton Res. 20(7): 1357-1375.

  • Van Hoek C. Mann D. G. &Jahns H. M. 1995. Algae. An introduction to phycology. 623 pp. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 200 150 1
PDF Downloads 94 70 1