Tentative list of endemic vascular plants of the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan: distribution, habitat preferences and conservation status of species

Open access

Tentative list of endemic vascular plants of the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan: distribution, habitat preferences and conservation status of species

Based on literature data and own fieldwork in the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan (Middle Asia), the taxonomic structure, distribution, habitat preferences as well as conservation status of a group of 86 species of vascular plants of endemic character are presented. The tentative list of exclusive endemic plants for the Zeravshan Mts was compiled. They belong to 25 families. The richest is the genus Astragalus with 11 species followed by Cousinia (8), Allium (5) and Scutellaria (3). The study has shown that the eastern subregions of the range are richest in endemics, especially, the Mogien-Daria, Seven Lakes, Pastrud-Daria, Ksztut and Yagnob valleys and Kuli-Kalon Plateau. The endemics studied are stenochoric species with very small number of known locations, mainly between one and two. The mean value of the range of the studied endemics is ca. 1140 km2. The most numerous endemic groups have been recorded at altitudes of around 1,800-2,100 and 2,700-3000 m a. s. l. The habitats harboring the richest group of endemics are rock screes, alpine forests, steppes and semi-savannas, alpine meadows, solid rocks, xerothermophilous shrubs and pastures. Almost half of the endemics have narrow ecological amplitude occurring in only one habitat type. The most important threats to Tajik endemics are intensive grazing and erosion of soils, as well as denudation. Most vulnerable types of vegetation to the human impact are forest and scrub communities. For effective protection of endemics in the Zeravshan Mts, a national park and a net of nature reserves has to be funded.

Agakhanjanz O. & Breckle S.-W. 1995. Origin and evolution of the mountain flora in Middle Asia and neighbouring mountain regions. Ecological Studies 113: 21-67.

Agakhanjanz O. & Breckle S.-W. 2002. Plant diversity and endemism in high mountains of Central Asia, the Caucasus and Siberia. In: Ch. Körner & E. Spehn (eds.). Mountain biodiversity - a global assessment, pp. 3-18. Parthenon Publ. Group, Boca Raton, New York.

Ahmadov K. M., Breckle S.-W. & Breckle U. 2006. Effects of grazing on biodiversity, productivity and soil erosion of alpine pastures in Tajik mountains. In: E. Spehn, C. Körner & M. Liberman (eds.). Land-use change and mountain biodiversity, pp. 253-261. CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.

Ali S. I. & Nasir Y. J. (eds.). 1989-1992. Flora of Pakistan. No. 131-2004. Islamabad, Karachi.

Ali S. I. & Qaiser M. (eds.). 1993-2007. Flora of Pakistan. No. 205-215. Islamabad, Karachi.

USAID. 2001. Biodiversity assessment for Tajikistan. USAID Central Asian Republic Mission. Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Borchsenius F. 1997. Patterns of plant species endemism in Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 379-399.

Breckle S.-W. & Wucherer S. 2006. Vegetation of the Pamir (Tajikistan): Land use and desertification problems. In: E. Spehn, C. Körner & M. Liberman (eds.). Land-use change and mountain biodiversity, pp. 225-237. CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.

Chukavina A. P. (ed.). 1984. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. VII, Zontichnye - Verbenovye. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Czerepanov S. K. 1995. Plantae Vasculares URSS. 667 pp. Nauka, Leningrad.

Davis P. H., Cullen G. & Coode M. J. E. 1965. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. 588 pp. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Dirnböck T., Dullinger S. & Grabherr G. 2003. A regional impact assessment of climate and land-use change on alpine vegetation. Journal of Biogeography 30: 401-417.

eFloras. 2008. Published on the Internet. http://www.efloras.org

Essl F., Staudinger M., Stöhr O., Schratt-Ehrendorfer L., Rabitsch W. & Niklfeld H. 2009. Distribution patterns, range size and niche breadth of Austrian endemic plants. Biological Conservation 142: 2547-2558.

Favarger C. & Contandriopoulos J. 1961. Essai sur ľendemisme. Berichte Schweizerischen Botanischen Gesselschaft 71: 384-408.

Favarger C. 1972 Endemism in the montane floras of Europe. In: D. H Valentine (ed.). Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution, pp. 191-204. Academic Press, London and New York.

Fritsch R. M., Khassanov F. O. & Matin F. 2002. New Allium taxa from Middle Asia and Iran. Stapfia 80: 381-393.

Gaston K. J. 1994. Rarity. 192 pp. Chapman & Hall, London.

Giam X., Bradshaw C. J. A., Tan H. T. W. & Sodhi N. S. 2010. Future habitat loss and the conservation of plant biodiversity. Biological Conservation 143: 1594-1602.

Gilpin M. E. & Soule M. É. 1986. Minimum viable populations: processes of species extinction. In: M. É. Soule (ed.). Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity, pp. 19-34. Sinauer Ass. Inc., Sunderland.

Goncharov N. F. 1937. Rajony flory Tadshikistana i ich rastitelnost. Flora Tadshikistana, Vol. 5, 468 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Grigoriev J. S. 1944. Oczerk rastitelnosti bassiejna srednewo Zeravshana. 325 pp. Izdatelstvo T.F.A.N. SSSR, Dushanbe.

Hendrych R. 1981. Bemerkungen zum Endemismus in der Flora der Tschechoslowakei. Preslia 53: 97-120.

IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. ii+30. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2.

Khassanov F. O., Shomuradov H. & Tojibaev K. 2007. A new Allium L. species from Middle Asia. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 39(2): 799-802.

Kinzikaeva G. K. (ed.). 1988. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. IX, Marenovye - Slozhnotsvetnye, 568 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Kochkareva T. F. (ed.). 1986. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. VIII, Kermekovye - Podorozhnikovye, 519 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Komarov W. L. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR. Vols. 1-29. Izdatelstwo Akademii Nauk SSSR. Leningrad-Moskva.

Kruckeberg A. R. & Rabinowitz D. 1985. Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 447-479.

Lamoreux J. F., Morrison J. C., Ricketts T. H., Olson D. M., Dinerstein E., Knight M. W. & Shugart H. H. 2006 Global test of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature 440: 212-214.

Latipova W. A. 1968. Koliczestwo osadkov. God. In: I. K. Narzikulov & K. W. Stanjukovich (eds.). Atlas Tajikskoi SSR, pp. 68-69. Akademia Nauk Tajikskoi SSr, Dushanbe-Moskva.

Malcolm J. R., Liu C., Neilson R. P., Hansen L. & Hannah L. 2006. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conservation Biology 20: 538-548.

Médail F. & Verlaque R. 1997. Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from southeastern France and Corsica: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 80: 269-281.

Mittermeier R. A., Gil P. R., Hoffman M., Pilgrim J., Brooks T., Goettsch-Mittermeier, C., Lamoreux J. & da Fonseca G. A. B. 2005. Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most threatened terrestrial ecoregions, pp. 186. Conservation International, Washington DC.

Myers N., Mittermeier R. A., Mittermeier C. G., de Fonseca G. A. B. & Kent J. 2000 Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.

Narzikulov I. K. & Stanjukovich K. W. 1968. Atlas Tajikskoi SSR. 200 pp. Akademia Nauk Tajikskoi SSR, Dushanbe-Moskva.

Narzikulov M. N. 1988 Red Date Book of Tajik SSR. 336 pp. Publishing Hause "Donish", Dushanbe.

Nasir Y. J & Ali S. I. (eds.). 1980-1988. Flora of Pakistan. No. 132-190. Islamabad, Karachi.

Nasir Y. J. & Ali S. I. (eds.). 1970-1979. Flora of West Pakistan. No. 1-131. Islamabad, Karachi.

Nobis M., Nowak A. & Zalewska-Gałosz J. 2010. Potamogeton pusillus agg. in Tajikistan (Middle Asia). Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 79(3): 235-238.

Nowak A. & Nowak S. 2004. The effectiveness of plant conservation: a case study of Opole Province, Southwest Poland. Environmental Management 34(3): 363-371.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1957. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. I, Paprotnikoobraznye - Zlaki, 546 pp. Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva-Leningrad.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1963. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. II, Osokovye - Orkhidnye, 456 pp. Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva-Leningrad.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1968. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. III, Opekhovye - Gvozdichnye, 710 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1975. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. IV, Rogolistnikovye - Rozotsvetnye, 576 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1978. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. V, Krestotsvetne - Bobovye, 678 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Ovchinnikov P. N. (ed.). 1981. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. VI, Bobovye (rod Astragal) - Tsinomorievye, 725 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Ozenda P. 1988. Die Vegetation der Alpen im europäischen Gebirgsraum. 353 pp. Fischer, Stuttgart.

Pavlov N. W. 1956-1966. Flora Kazachstana. Vol. 1-9. Izdatelstwo Akademii Nauk SSR. Ałma-Ata.

Pawłowska S. 1977. Charakterystyka statystyczna i elementy flory Polskiej. In: W. Szafer & K. Zarzycki (eds.). Szata roślinna Polski, I, wyd. 3, pp. 129-206. PWN, Warszawa.

Pawłowski B. 1970. Remarques sur ľendemisme dans la flore des Alpes et des Carpates. Vegetatio 21(4-6): 181-243.

Piękoś-Mirkowa H., Mirek Z. & Miechówka A. 1996. Endemic vascular plants in the polish Tatra Mts. Distribution and ecology. Polish Botanical Studies 12: 1-110.

Rasulova M. R. (ed.). 1991. Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR. T. X, Slozhnotsvetnye, 619 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad.

Rathjens C. 1986. Desertifikation im Vorderen Orient. Gedanken zu einem geoökologischen Problem des Trocklenklimas. Colloq. Geographicum 19: 153-164.

Rechinger K. H. 1963-1999. Flora Iranica. Vols. 1-174. Akademische Druck und Verlangsanstalt, Graz.

Safarov N. 2003. National strategy and action plan on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Governmental Working Group of the Republic of Tajikistan. Dushanbe.

Schwartz M. W., Iverson L. R., Prasad A. M., Matthews S. N. & O'Connor R. J. 2006. Predicting extinctions as a result of climate change. Ecology 87: 1611-1615.

Sodhi N. S. & Brook B. W. 2006. Southeast Asian biodiversity in crisis. 190 pp. Cambridge Univ. Press., Cambridge.

Stanjukovich K. W. 1982. Rastitelnost. Tadshikistan. In: C. M. Saidmuradow & K. W. Stanjukovich (eds.). Priroda i prirodnyje resursy, pp. 358-435. Izdatelstvo Donish, Dushanbe.

Strid A. 1993. Phytogeographical aspects of the Greek mountain flora. Fragm. Flor. Geobot, Suppl. 2: 411-433.

Strid A. 2010. The mountain flora of Greece, 1, pp. 822. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Thuiller W., Lavorel S., Araujo M. B., Sykes M. T. & Prentice I. C. 2005. Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102: 8245-8250.

Trestman A. G. 1968. Gidrologiczeskije usłowia. In: I. K. Narzikulov & K. W. Stanjukovich (eds.). Atlas Tajikskoi SSR, pp. 85-88. Akademia Nauk Tajikskoi SSr, Dushanbe-Moskva.

Tribsch A. & Schönswetter P. 2003. Patterns of endemism and comparative phylogeography confirm paleo-environmental evidence for Pleistocene refugia in the Eastern Alps. Taxon 52: 477-497.

Tutin T. G., Burges N. A., Chater A. O., Edmondson J. R., Heywood V. H., Moore D. M., Valentine D. H., Walters S. M., Webb D. A. 2002. Flora Europaea, vols 1-6. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

van der Werff H. & Consiglio T. 2004. Distribution and conservation significance of endemic species of flowering plants in Peru. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1699-1713.

Wilson S. D. & Keddy P. A. 1986. Species competitive ability and position along a natural stress/disturbance gradient. Ecology 67: 1236-1242.

Young K. R., Ulloa Ulloa C., Luteyn J. L. & Knapp S. 2002. Plant evolution and endemism in Andean South America: an introduction. The Botanical Review 68: 4-27.

Zakirov K. Z. 1955. Flora i rastitelnost bassejna reki Zeravshan. Vol. 1, pp. 249. Izdatelstvo A.N. Uzb. SSR, Tashkent.

Zakirov K. Z. 1961. Flora i Rastitelnost bassejna reki Zeravshan. Vol. 2, konspekt flory, pp. 1-446. Izdatelstvo Akad. Nauk Uzbek. SSR. Tashkent.

Zapriagayeva W. I. & Ikonnikov S. S. 1968. Lesa i rasprotranienie redkich drevesnych porod i kustarnikov. In: I. K. Narzikulov & K. W. Stanjukovich (eds.). Atlas Tajikskoi SSR, pp. 68-69. Akademia Nauk Tajikskoi SSr, Dushanbe-Moskva.

Zhengyi W. & Raven P. H. (eds.). 1998. Flora of China. Vols. 1-25. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis.

Biodiversity Research and Conservation

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 84 84 11
PDF Downloads 31 31 14