Within the last twenty years studies have been conducted at many research centers with the aim of dividing breeding materials into heterotic groups based on molecular markers. Molecular techniques make it possible to study the genetic purity of inbred lines, determine their genetic variability and classify breeding materials for which no information is available on their origin. This study aims to investigate relationships between coefficients of relatedness (pedigree analysis) and molecular similarity estimated on the basis of AFLP and RAPD molecular markers, between parental forms of F1 maize hybrids. Determination of these relationships will make it possible to establish a hierarchy of importance for applied methods concerning selection of parental components for heterotic crossings based on the degree of relatedness and genetic similarity. As a result of the experiment it was shown that in the case of incomplete pedigree information, in the selection of parental components for crossings we may use information concerning molecular similarity determined using AFLP markers and the Jaccard index, which to the least degree differentiates matrices of AFLP and RAPD molecular similarity.
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