Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between objectively measured daily physical activity (PA) and body fat mass (BF) and body mass index (BMI). A further aim was to analyse the variance of PA between quartiles of BF and BMI.
Material and methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 126 university students (53 males aged 20.46 ± 2.04 years and 73 female aged 19.69 ± 1.32 years) was conducted.
Results: The female participants and PA characteristics explain 57.10% of BF variance and the model was statistically significant (F(6, 875) = 196.38; p = 0.001). BMI was also included in the model. Standard binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that female sex and PA characteristics can influence overweight. The full model containing all variables was statistically significant (G2(6) = 58.598, p-value = 0.001). Analysis of variance between BF quartiles revealed statistically significant differences in male participants in light PA (p = 0.001; ES = 0.09), moderate PA (p = 0.001; ES = 0.042) and vigorous PA (p = 0.001; ES = 0.130).
Conclusions: The statistical model in the regression analysis suggests that low and vigorous levels of PA explain 57% of BF variance in female participants.
1. Arias-Palencia N.M., Solera-Martínez M., Gracia-Marco L., Silva P., Martínez-Vizcaíno V., Cańete-García-Prieto J., Sánchez-López M. (2015) Levels and patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and compliance with different public health guidelines in university students. PLoS One 10: e0141977. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141977.
2. Azevedo M.R., Araújo C.L.P., Reichert F.F., Siqueira F.V., da Silva M.C., Hallal P.C. (2007) Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity. Int. J. Public. Health 52: 8-15. DOI: 10.1007/s00038-006-5062-1.
3. Blaak E. (2001) Gender differences in fat metabolism. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 4: 499-502.
4. Brook J.S., Lee J.Y., Brook D.W., Finch S.J. (2013) Determinants of obesity: Results from a longitudinal study of adolescents and adults living in an Urban area. Psychol. Rep., 113: 717-733. DOI: abs/10.2466/15.13.PR0.113x26z6.
5. Burton N.W. Turrell G. (2000) Occupation, hours worked, and leisure-time physical activity. Prev. Med. (Baltim) 31: 673-681. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091743500907631
6. Chomistek A.K., Chasman D.I., Cook N.R., Rimm E.B., Lee I.-M. (2013) Physical activity, Genes for physical fitness, and risk of coronary heart disease. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc., 45: 691-697. Available from: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00005768-201304000-00011
7. Cohen J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
8. Colman I., Zeng Y., McMartin S.E., Naicker K., Ataullahjan A., Weeks M., Senthilselvan A., Galambos N.L. (2014) Protective factors against depression during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: Findings from a national Canadian cohort. Prev. Med. (Baltim) 65: 28-32. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091743514001315
9. Dehghan M. Merchant A.T. (2008) Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies? Nutr. J. 7: 26. Available from: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/7/1/26
10. Dinger M.K. Behrens T.K. (2006) Accelerometer-determined physical activity of free-living college students. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc., 38: 774-779. Available from: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00005768-200604000-00024
11. Fedewa M.V., Das B.M., Evans E.M., Dishman R.K. (2014) Change in weight and adiposity in college students. Am. J. Prev. Med., 47: 641-652.Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749379714004024
12. Ferguson C.J. (2009) An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Prof. Psychol. Res. Pract., 40: 532-538.
13. Gokee-LaRose J., Gorin A.A., Raynor H.A., Laska M.N., Jeffery R.W., Levy R.L., Wing R.R. (2009) Are standard behavioral weight loss programs effective for young adults? Int. J. Obes., 33: 1374-1380. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2009.185.
14. González Sandoval C.E., Díaz Burke Y., Mendizabal-Ruiz A.P., Medina Díaz E., Alejandro Morales J. (2014) Prevalence of obesity and altered lipid profile in university students. Nutr. Hosp., 29: 315-321.
15. Gordon-Larsen P., Hou N., Sidney S., Sternfeld B., Lewis C.E., Jacobs D.R., Popkin B.M. (2008) Fifteen-year longitudinal trends in walking patterns and their impact on weight change. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89: 19-26. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26147.
16. Gropper S.S., Simmons K.P., Connell L.J., Ulrich P.V. (2012) Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab., 37: 1118-1123. DOI: abs/10.1139/h2012-139.
17. Haskell W.L., Lee I.M., Pate R.R., Powell K.E., Blair S.N., Franklin B.A., Macera C.A., Heath G.W., Thompson P.D., Bauman A. (2007) Physical activity and public health. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc., 39: 1423-1434. Available from: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00005768-200708000-00027
18. Hebden L., Chan H.N., Louie J.C., Rangan A., Allman-Farinelli M. (2015) You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults’ food selection behaviour. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 28: 401-408. DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12312.
19. Hopkins K.D., Hopkins B.R., Glass G.V. (1996) Basic statistics for the behavioral sciences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
20. Kim van N.A., Larson N., Laska M.N. (2012) Emerging adulthood: A critical age for preventing excess weight gain? Adolesc. Med. State. Art. Rev., 23: 571-588.
21. Maher J.P., Pincus A.L., Ram N., Conroy D.E. (2015) Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood. Dev. Psychol., 51: 1407-1419. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000037.
22. Pescatello L.S., Arena R., Riebe D., Kluwer P.D.T.W. (2014) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
23. Petersen L., Schnohr P., Sřrensen T.I.A. (2004) Longitudinal study of the long-term relation between physical activity and obesity in adults. Int. J. Obes., 28: 105-112. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802548.
24. Peterson N.E., Sirard J.R., Kulbok P.A., DeBoer M.D., Erickson J.M. (2015) Validation of accelerometer thresholds and inclinometry for measurement of sedentary behavior in young adult university students. Res. Nurs. Health, 38: 492-499. DOI: 10.1002/nur.21694.
25. Di Pietro L., Dziura J., Blair S.N. (2004) Estimated change in physical activity level (PAL) and prediction of 5-year weight change in men: the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Obes., 28: 1541-1547. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802821.
26. Rauner A., Mess F., Woll A. (2013) The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a systematic review of studies published in or after 2000. BMC Pediatr., 13: 19. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-19.
27. Reiner M., Niermann C., Jekauc D., Woll A. (2013) Long-term health benefits of physical activity - a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health, 13: 813. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/813
28. Reusch J.E.B., Bridenstine M., Regensteiner J.G. (2013) Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord., 14: 77-86. DOI: 10.1007/s11154-012-9234-4.
29. Strasser B. (2013) Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1281: 141-159. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06785.x.
30. Sun F., Norman IJ., While A.E. (2013) Physical activity in older people: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 13: 449. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/449
31. Timmons B.W., LeBlanc A.G., Carson V., Connor Gorber S., Dillman C., Janssen I., Kho M.E., Spence J.C., Stearns J.A., Tremblay M.S. (2012) Systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0-4 years). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37: 773-792. DOI: 10.1139/h2012-070.