The effect of different doses of caffeine on cardiovascular variables and shooting performance

Open access


Study aim: the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight of caffeine on heart rate, blood pressure and shooting performance among elite shooters.

Material and methods: sStudy participants comprised 8 male shooters among athletes at the national level with at least 2 years of experience, with the mean age (26.50±13.08 years), weight (73.02 ± 12.2 kg), height (174.62 ± 8.97 cm) and BMI (23.93 ± 2.88 kg/m2). The blood pressure and heart rate of all participants were measured at rest. Participants then randomly took caffeine (3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo for 3 different days, 2 days apart. One hour after ingestion, they shot with rifle and air pistol. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA with repeated measures and the Bonferroni test.

Results: the results of the survey showed that taking 5 mg/kg of caffeine caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and also caused a significant increase in heart rate (p < 0.05) and a significant decrease in shooting performance (p < 0.05). Moreover, taking 3 mg/kg of caffeine caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). But this amount of caffeine had no significant effect on the heart rate, diastolic blood pressure or shooting performance (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that taking 5 mg/kg of caffeine can increase the blood pressure and heart rate of the shooters that leads to a decrease in shooting performance.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Ahmadi P. Mokhtari P. Mousavi M.K.V. (2012) The Effect of Caffeine Consumption on Arousal Activation and Dart-Throwing Performance in Different Times of Day. Ann. Biol. Res. 3(1): 249-258.

  • 2. Brice C. A. Smith (2001) The effects of caffeine on simulated driving subjective alertness and sustained attention. Hum. Psychopharm. Clin. 16(7): 523-531.

  • 3. Damirchi A. et al. (2009) Effect of caffeine on blood pressure during exercise and at rest in overweight men. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 10(6): 623-628.

  • 4. Daniels J.W. P.A. Molé J.D. Shaffrath C.L. Stebbins (1998) Effects of caffeine on blood pressure heart rate and forearm blood flow during dynamic leg exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(1): 154-159.

  • 5. Davis J.M. Z. Zhao H.S. Stock K.A. Mehl J. Buggy G.A. Hand (2003) Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 284(2): R399-R404.

  • 6. Graham T.E. (2001) Caffeine and exercise. Sports Med. 31(11): 785-807.

  • 7. Harland B.F. (2000) Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition 16(7): 522-526.

  • 8. Haskell C.F. D.O. Kennedy K.A. Wesnes A.B. Scholey (2005) Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology 179(4): 813-825.

  • 9. Heatherley S.V. R.C. Hayward H.E. Seers P.J. Rogers (2005) Cognitive and psychomotor performance mood and pressor effects of caffeine after 4 6 and 8 h caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology 178(4): 461-470.

  • 10. Johnson R. D. Merullo (2000) Caffeine gender and sentry duty: effects of a mild stimulant on vigilance and marksmanship. Pennington Center Nutrition Series 10: 272-289.

  • 11. Kayihan G. G. Ersöz A. Özkan M. Koz (2013) Relationship between efficiency of pistol shooting and selected physical-physiological parameters of police. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 36(4): 819-832.

  • 12. Lakie M. (2010) The influence of muscle tremor on shooting performance. Exp. Physiol. 95(3): 441-450.

  • 13. Magkos F. S.A. Kavouras (2004) Caffeine and Ephedrine. Sports Med. 34(13): 871-889.

  • 14. McLellan T.M. G.H. Kamimori D.G. Bell I.F. Smith D. Johnson G. Belenky (2005) Caffeine maintains vigilance and marksmanship in simulated urban operations with sleep deprivation. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 76(1): 39-45.

  • 15. Mon D. M. Zakynthinaki C. Cordente M. Barriopedro J. Sampedro (2014) Body sway and performance at competition in male pistol and rifle Olympic shooters. Biomed. Hum. Kinet.s 6(1): 56-62.

  • 16. Noordzij M. C.S. Uiterwaal L.R. Arends F.J. Kok D.E. Grobbee J.M. Geleijnse (2005) Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Hypertens. 23(5): 921-928.

  • 17. Orian S.P.K. Hoseini E. (1999) Physiological influence of caffeine on hormonal pituitary- adrenal axis and plasma level of adrenal steroid hormones. Sci. Med. J. 27: 15-23.

  • 18. Research I. o. M. C. o. M. N. (2001) Caffeine for the sustainment of mental task performance: formulations for military operations. National Academies Press.

  • 19. Yaghobi M. L. Bolboli A. Naghizadeh A. Valizadeh S. Safarzadeh (2014) Effect of Caffeine on Blood Pressure during Resistance Exercise in Sedentary Healthy Male. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences 14(1): 79-87.

  • 20. Share B. N. Sanders and J. Kemp (2009) Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting. J. Sports Sci. 27(6): 661-666.

  • 21. Sung B.H. W.R. Lovallo G.A. Pincomb M.F. Wilson (1990) Effects of caffeine on blood pressure response during exercise in normotensive healthy young men. Am. J. Cardiol. 65(13): 909-913.

  • 22. Tharion W.J. B. Shukitt-Hale H.R. Lieberman (2003) Caffeine effects on marksmanship during high-stress military training with 72 hour sleep deprivation. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 74(4): 309-314.

  • 23. Umemura T. K. Ueda K. Nishioka T. Hidaka H. Takemoto S. Nakamura D. Jitsuiki J. Soga C. Goto K. Chayama (2006) Effects of acute administration of caffeine on vascular function. Am. J. Cardiol 98(11): 1538-1541.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.38

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.144
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.432

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 498 406 22
PDF Downloads 233 179 11