Study aim: the objective was to assess and compare the energy expenditure (EE) and exercise heart rate (EHR) during Nordic Walking (NW), and conventional walking (W) in physical education and tourism/recreation university students.
Material and methods: a total of 53 women and 65 men, students at the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, and Polytechnic in Opole, in Poland, were investigated to assess the EE of Nordic Walking and conventional walking, and to measure the EHR, a uniaxial accelerometer – Caltrac Monitor, and a pulsometer – Polar RS 400 SD were used. After a standard warm-up, the participants (joined group) were marching with poles for 30 minutes, at a speed regulated by the group’s leader, who used footpod’s indications: 5.5–6.5 km/h – in Katowice, and 7.5–8.5 km/h – in Opole. After a break, during which the participants’ heart rate decreased below 100 bpm, the above actions and measurements were repeated, during normal walking.
Results: energy expenditure during Nordic Walking (EE NW), expressed in kcals and METs, was in women and in men, at both analyzed speeds, significantly higher (p < 0.05) than during conventional walking (EE W). EHR was higher during NW, compared to W, and the statistically significant differences were revealed both in female’s and male’s groups.
Conclusions: our study data have shown that EE and EHR during Nordic Walking, have been significantly higher than during conventional walking, regardless of the moving speed and gender. NW might present a useful modality in prevention of hypokinetic disorders.
1. Ainsworth B.E., W.L. Haskell, S.D. Herrmann, N. Meckes, D.R. Bassett Jr., C. Tudor-Locke et al. (2011) Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 43(8): 1575-1581.
2. Breyer M.K., R. Breyer-Kohansal, G.C. Funk, N. Dornhofer, M.A. Spruit, E.F. Wouters et al. (2010) Nordic walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial. [Comparative Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Respir. Res., 11: 112. DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-112.
3. Church TS, CP.Earnest, GM.Morss (2002) Field testing of physiological responses associated with Nordic Walking. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 73(3): 296-300.
4. Coronado M., J.P. Janssens, B. de Muralt, P. Terrier, Y. Schutz, J.W. Fitting (2003) Walking activity measured by accelerometry during respiratory rehabilitation. J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil., 23: 357-364.
5. Davison RC., S. Grant (1993) Is walking sufficient exercise for health? Sports Med., 16: 369-373.
6. Figard-Fabre H., N. Fabre, A. Leonardi, F. Schena (2011) Efficacy of Nordic walking in obesity management. Int. J. Sports Med., 32(6): 407-414. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1268461.
7. Figard-Fabre H., N. Fabre, A. Leonardi, F. Schena (2010) Physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking in obese middle-aged women in comparison with the normal walk. [Comparative Study]. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 108(6): 1141-1151. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-009-1315-z.
8. Fritz T., K. Caidahl, M. Osler, C.G. Ostenson, J.R. Zierath, P. Wandell (2011) Effects of Nordic walking on health-related quality of life in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired or normal glucose tolerance. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Diabet Med., 28(11): 1362-1372. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03348.x.
9. Gram B., R. Christensen, C. Christiansen, J. Gram (2010) Effects of nordic walking and exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]. Clin. J. Sport Med., 20(5): 355-361. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181e56e0a
10. Hagen M., E.M. Hennig, P. Stieldorf (2011) Lower and Upper Extremity Loading in Nordic Walking in Comparison with Walking and Running. J. Appl. Biomech., 27: 22-31.
11. Hansen E.A., G. Smith (2009) Energy expenditure and comfort during Nordic walking with different pole lengths. J. Strength Cond. Res., 23(4): 1187–1194. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819f1e2b.
12. Haugan A., B. Sollesnes (2003) Does sub maximal oxygen uptake increase when using Nordic Walking poles? Academic degree study. Sogn og Fjordane University College Faculty of Teacher Education, Sogndal, Norway.
13. Jürimäe T., K. Meema, K. Karelson, P. Purge, J. Jürimäe (2009) Intensity of Nordic Walking in young females with different peak O2 consumption. [Comparative Study]. Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging, 29(5): 330-334. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-097X.2009.00872.x.
14. Kleindienst F.I., K.J. Michel, J. Schwarz, B. Krabbe (2006) Comparison of kinematic and kinetic parameters between the locomotion patterns in nordic walking, walking and running. [Controlled Clinical Trial]. Sportverletz Sportschaden, 20(1): 25-30. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-926592.
15. Kocur P., E. Deskur-Smielecka, M. Wilk, P. Dylewicz (2009) Effects of Nordic Walking training on exercise capacity and fitness in men participating in early, short-term inpatient cardiac rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome – a controlled trial. Clin Rehabil., 23: 995–1004. DOI: 10.1177/0269215509337464.
16. Kocur P., E. Deskur-Smielecka, M. Wilk, P. Dylewicz (2009) Estimation of energy expenditure during various forms of exercise training in early cardiac rehabilitation. Fizjoterapia, 17(2): 3-11. DOI:10.248/vi 0109-010-0001-3.
17. Królikowska B., M. Rozpara, W. Mynarski, B. Graczykowska, D. Puciato (2010) The calorific cost of young women’s leisure activity. Antropomotoryka, 49: 69-79 (In Polish, English abstract).
18. Mannerkorpi K., L. Nordeman, A. Cider, G. Jonsson (2010) Does moderate-to-high intensity Nordic walking improve functional capacity and pain in fibromyalgia? A prospective randomized controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Arthritis Res. Ther., 2(5): R189. DOI: 10.1186/ar3159.
19. Mikalacki M., N. Cokorilo, R. Katic (2011) Effect of nordic walking on functional ability and blood pressure in elderly women. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Coll. Antropol., 35(3): 889-894.
20. Morgulec-Adamowicz N., J. Marszałek, P. Jagustyn (2011) Nordic walking – a new form of adapted physical activity (a literature review). Hum. Mov., 12(2): 124-132. DOI: 10.2478/v10038-011-0009-7.
21. Parkatti T., J. Perttunen, P. Wacker (2012) Improvements in Functional Capacity From Nordic Walking: A Randomized Controlled Trial Among Older Adults. J. Aging Phys. Activ., 20: 93-105.
22. Piech K., B. Raczyńska (2010) Nordic walking – a versatile physical activity. Pol. J. Sport Tourism, 17: 69-78.
23. Porcari J.P., T.L. Hendrickson, P.R. Walter, L. Terry, G. Walsko (1997) The physiological responses to walking with and without Power Poles on treadmill exercise. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 68(2): 161-166.
24. Saunders M.J., G.R. Hipp, D.L.Wenos, M.L.Deaton (2008) Trekking poles increase physiological responses to hiking without increased perceived exertion. J. Strength Cond. Res., 22(5): 1468-1474. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817bd4e8.
25. Schiffer T., A. Knicker, U. Hoffman, B. Harwig, W. Hollmann, H.K. Struder (2006) Physiological responses to nordic walking, walking and jogging. [Comparative Study Randomized Controlled Trial]. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 98(1): 56-61. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-006-0242-5.
26. Schiffer T., A. Knicker, M. Montanarella, H.K. Strüder (2011) Mechanical and physiological effects of varying pole weights during Nordic walking compared to walking. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 111(6): 1121-6.
27. Svoboda Z., P. Stejskal, A. Jakubec, J. Krejči (2011) Kinematical analysis, pole forces and energy cost of Nordic Walking – slope influence. Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc. Gymn., 41(2): 27-34.
28. van Eijkeren F.J., R.S. Reijmers, M.J. Kleinveld, A. Minten, J.P. Bruggen, B.R. Bloem (2008) Nordic Walking Improves Mobility in Parkinson’s Disease. Mov. Disord., 23(15): 2239-2243. DOI: 10.1002/mds.22293.
29. Zając-Kowalska A., D. Białoszewski, W. Woźniak, M. Sar (2011) Effect of nordic walking on selected respiratory parameters in persons over 55 years of age and the evaluation of this form of activity by the practicing persons. Pol. J. Sport Med., 2(4), 27: 115-121.