Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits . This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.
Material and methods: 300 students aged 12, 14 and 16 from six Warsaw’s schools participated in the study. Students were divided into 12 groups according to three criterions: hearing impairment level, gender and age. The physical fitness was measured with laboratory methods. There was „inclined plane” measurement set used to estimate the endurance level. From the biomechanical point of view the measure of endurance is change of power versus time and total work.
Results: The study result’s proved significant differences only between boy’s group. Deaf and hearing girls presented similar level of their endurance parameters. The significant differences in results of deaf and well-hearing students were observed in the groups of 14 years old boys. Deaf male students presented 23% lower (p < 0.01) values of maximal power in comparison to their hearing peers. Yet, they were more capable of sustaining the power developed for a longer time, which is proved by significantly higher (33%; p < 0.001) regression coefficient b. Since maximal power level was lower, the executed work was also significantly lower comparing to well-hearing students’ results.
Conclusion: Research proved that deaf students do not vary from their well-hearing peers with regard to the energetic potential. Differences described in the literature and recorded in our research are probably the result of environmental (social) factors and different models of gaining movement habits.
1. Bat-Chava Y., Martin D., Kosciw J.G. (2005) Longitudinal improvements in communication and socialization of deaf children with cochlear implants and hearing aids: Evidence from parental reports. J. Child Psychol. Psych.and Allied Disciplines, 46: 1287-1296.
2. Butterfield S.A. (1991) Influence of age, sex, hearing loss and balance on development of running by deaf children. Percept. Mot. Skills, 73: 624-626.
3. Crowe T.K., Horak F.B. (1988) Motor proficiency associated with vestibular deficits in children with hearing impairments. Phys. Ther., 68: 10.
4. Cushing S.L., Chia R., James A.L., Papsin B.C., Gordon K.A. (2008) A test of static and dynamic balance function in children with cochlear implants. Arch.Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 134(1): 34-38.
5. De Kegel A., Dhooge I., Peersman W., Rijckaert J., Baetens T., Cambier D., Van Waelvelde H. (2010) Constructor validity of the assessment of balance in children who are developing typically and children whit hearing inmpairments. Phys. Ther., 90(12): 1783-1794.
6. Dzimira-Pyzio J., Demczuk-Włodarczyk E., Bieć E. (2007) Evaluation of postural balance in standing position in deaf children aged 11-13 years. Fizjoterapia, 15(1): 40-43. ISSN 1230-8323.
7. Dummer G.M., Haubenstriker J.L., Stewart D.A. (1996) Motor Skill Performances of Children Who Are Deaf. Adapt. Phys. Activ. Quarterly, 13: 400-414.
8. Enoka R.M. (2008) Neuromechanics of human movement, University of Colorado at Boulder. Human Kinetics. 317-234.
9. Fidelus K., Urbanik Cz., Grudniak K. (1994) Time Changes of Power Output as an Endurance Index of Lower Limb Muscle. Biology of Sport, 11: 115-121.
10. Gheysen F., Loots G., Van Waelvelde H. (2008) Motor development of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Educ., 13(2): 215-224.
11. Gkouvatizi A.N., Mantis K., Pilianidis T. (2010) The impact of hearing loss degree and age on upper limb coordination ability in hearing, deaf and hard of hearing pupils. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, 17(2): 147-155.
12. Hattin H., Fraser M., Ward G.R., Shephaed R. (1986) Are deaf children unusually fit. A comparison of fitness between deaf and blind children. Adapt. Phys. Activ. Quarterly, 3: 268-275.
13. Horn D.L., Pisoni D.B., Sanders M., Miyamoto R.T. (2005) Behavioral assessment of prelingually deaf children before cochlear implantation. The Laryngoscope, 15: 1603-1611.
14. Hartman E., Houwen S., Visscher Ch. (2011) Motor performance and sport participation in deaf elementary school children. Adapt. Phys. Activ. Quarterly, 28: 132-145.
15. Iwańska D., Urbanik Cz., Mastalerz A., Madej A. (1999) The function respiration research in the time of effort at the people with hearing disorders. Acta Bioeng. Biomech., 1(1): 193-196.
16. Iwańska D., Urbanik Cz. (2003) Analysis of dynamic capabilites of children with hearing impairment. ActaBioeng. Biomech., 5(1): 189-195.
17. Kyröläinen H., Komi P.V. (1995) Differences in mechanical efficiency between power- and endurancetrained athletes while jumping. Eur J. Appl. Physiol., 70: 36-44.
18. Liberman L.J., Volding L., Winnick J.P. (2004) Comparing motor development of deaf children of deaf parents with deaf children of hearing parents. AmericanAnnals of the Deaf, 149(3): 281-289.
19. Oksanen P., Kyröläinen H., Komi P.V. (1990) Estimation of errors in the mechanical efficiency. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 61: 473-478.
20. Obrzut J.E., Maddock G.J., Lee C.P. (1999) Determinants of self-concept in deaf and hard of hearing children. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil., 11: 237-251.
21. Potter CN., Silverman LN. (1984) Characteristic of vestibular function and static balance skill in deaf children. Phys. Ther., 64(7).
22. Przewęda R. (1985) Uwarunkowania poziomu sprawności fizycznej polskiej młodzieży szkolnej. Z Warsztatów Badawczych, Warszawa.
23. Savelsbergh G.J.P., Netelenbos J.B., Whiting H.T.A. (1991) Auditory perception and the control of spatially coordinated action of deaf and hearing children. J. ChildPsychol. Psych. and Allied Disciplines, 32(3): 489-500.
24. Schlumberger E., Narbona J., Manrique M. (2004) non-verbal development children with deafness with and without cochlear implants. Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 46: 599-606.
25. Shin M.S., Kim S.K., Kim S.S., Park M.H., Kim C.S., Oh S.H. (2007) Comparison of cognitive function in deaf children between before and after cochlear implant. Earand Hearing, 28(2): 22-28.
26. Stewart D.A., Robinson J., McCarthy D. (1991) Participation in Deaf Sport: Characteristics of Deaf Athletes. Adapt. Phys. Activ. Quarterly, 8: 136-145.
27. Suarez H., Angeli S., Suarez A., Rosales B., Carrera X., Alonso R. (2007) Balance sensory organization in children with profound hearing loss and cochlear implants. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol., 71.
28. Urbanik Cz., Ubukata O. (1985) The influence of training tith concentric and eccentric work on the force and velocity characteristics of muscle. IX International Series on Biomechanics. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ilinois USA. 5: 77-81.
29. Winnick J., Short F. (1986) Physical fitness of adolescents with auditory impairments. Adapt. Phys. Activ. Quarterly, 3: 58-66.
30. Vujkov S., Dukic M., Drid P. (2010) Aerobic capacity of handball players with hearing impairment. Biomed. Hum. Kinetics, 2: 58-61.
31. Zwierzchowska A., Gawlik K., Grabara M. (2004) Energetic and coordination abilities of deaf children. J. Hum. Kinetics, 11: 83-16.