Icings and their role as an important element of the cryosphere in High Arctic glacier forefields

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates icings and their role as an important element of the glacier forefields observed in the Kaffiøyra region in Svalbard. The emergence or disappearance of icings is one of the effects of changes observed in the area of a glacier and its catchment in the High Arctic. Icings were observed both in summer and spring in 1996–2015. The main objective was focused on the location and surface changes of the icings, as this is important for their responses to changes which occur across the cryosphere. In the forefields of most glaciers in the Kaffiøyra region, a generally declining trend is observed in the size of icing fields, with only occasional periods in which it increased. During the last five years, they have not been so large as they were in the preceding years. The degradation of High Arctic icings mainly occurs in summer, generally as a result of surface and mechanical ablation. The reach of icings is rather variable and their surface and thickness tend to change year by year, depending on hydrological conditions in the glacier’s system. Regardless of the causes of icings’ formation, their size, range and reach are related to the intensity of melting during a given season, which is conditioned by the weather, and especially by the winter outflow from a glacier.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • ÅKERMAN J. 1982 Studies on naledi (icings) in West Spitsbergen. Proceedings of the 4th Canadian Perma-frost Conference: 189–202.

  • BÆLUM K. BENN D.I. 2011 Thermal structure and drainage system of a small valley glacier (Tellbreen Svalbard) investigated by ground penetrating radar. The Cryosphere 5: 139–149.

  • BARANOWSKI S. 1977 Subpolarne lodowce Spitsbergenu na tle klimatu tego regionu. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis No 393 Studia Geograficzne XXXI Uniwersytet Wrocławski Wrocław.

  • BARANOWSKI S. 1982 Naled ice in front of some Spits-bergen Glaciers. Journal of Glaciology 28: 211–214.

  • BARTOSZEWSKI S. 1998 Outflow regime of Wedel Jarlsberg Lan rivers Spitsbergen. Wydawnictwo UMCS Lublin.

  • BJÖRNSSON H. GJESSING Y. HAMRAN S.E. HAGEN J.O. LIESTØL O. PÁLSSON F. ERLINGSSON B. 1996 The thermal regime of sub-polar glaciers mapped by multi-frequency radio-echo sounding. Journal of Glaciology 42: 23–32.

  • BUKOWSKA-JANIA E. 2003 The role of the glacial system circulating of calcium carbonate in natural environment. Prace Naukowe UŚ Katowice (in Polish).

  • BUKOWSKA-JANIA E. 2007 The role of glacier system in migration of calcium carbonate on Svalbard. Polish Polar Research 28: 137–155.

  • BUKOWSKA-JANIA E. SZAFRANIEC J. 2005 Distribution and morphometric characteristics of icing in Svalbard. Polar Research 24: 41–53.

  • CHYLEK P. FOLLAND C.K. LESINS G. DUBEY M.K. WANG M. 2009 Arctic air temperature change amplification and the Atlantic. Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L14801 doi:10.1029/2009GL038777.

  • DEGARD R.S. HAMRAN S.E. BØ H. ETZELMULLER B. VATNE G. SOLLID J.S. 2007 Thermal regime of a valley glacier Erikbreen northern Spitsbergen. Polar Research 11: 69–79.

  • DOWDESWELL J.A. BENHAM T.J. 2003 A surge of Perseibreen Svalbard examined using aerial photography and ASTER high resolution satellite imagery. Polar Research 22: 373–383.

  • FØRLAND E.J. BENESTAD R.E. FLATØY F. HANSSEN-BAUER I. HAUGEN J.E. ISAKSEN K. SORT-EBERG A. ÅDLANDSVIK B. 2009 Climate development in North Norway and the Svalbard region during 1900–2100. Norsk Polarinstitutt Rapportserie Nr. 128.

  • GRABIEC M. JANIA J. PUCZKO D. BUDZIK T. 2012 Surface and bed morphology of Hansbreen a tide-water glacier in Spitsbergen. Polish Polar Research 33: 111–138.

  • GRZEŚ M. 2005 Naledi of Kaffiøyra (NW Spitsbergen). [in:] Grześ M. Sobota I. (eds.) The Outline of Kaffiøyra Geography (NW Spitsbergen). Oficyna Wydawnicza TURPRESS Toruń: 17–26.

  • GRZEŚ M. SOBOTA I. 2000 Winter snow accumulation and winter outflow from the Waldemar Glacier (NW Spitsbergen) between 1996 and 1998. Polish Polar Research 21: 19–32.

  • HAGEN J.O. MELVOLD K. PINGLOT F. DOWDE-SWELL J.A. 2003 On the net mass balance of the glaciers and ice caps in Svalbard Norwegian Arctic. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 35: 264–270.

  • HODGKINS R. HAGEN J.O. HAMRAN S.V. 1999 20th century mass balance and thermal regime change at Scott Turnerbreen. Svalbard. Annals of Glaciology 28: 216–220.

  • HODGKINS R. TRANTER M. DOWDESWELL J.A. 2004 The characteristics and formation of a High-Arctic proglacial icing. Geografiska Annaler 86A: 265–275.

  • JANIA J. 1997 Glacjologia. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN Warszawa.

  • JANIA J. MOCHNACKI D. GĄDEK B. 1996 The thermal structure of Hansbreen a tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen Svalbard. Polar Research 15: 53–66.

  • KLIMASZEWSKI M. 1960 Studia geomorfologiczne w zachodniej części Spitsbergenu między Kongsfjordem a Eidembukta Zeszyty Naukowe UJ 32 Prace Geograficzne 1.

  • LANKAUF K.R. 2002 The retreat of the glaciers in the Kaffiøyra region (Oscar II Land Spitsbergen) in the twentieth century. Prace Geograficzne 183.

  • LIESTØL O. 1976 Pingos springs and permafrost in Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinstitutt. Årbok. 1975: 7–29.

  • MILNER A.M. BROWN L.E. HANNAH D.M. 2009 Hydroecological response of river systems to shrinking glaciers. Hydrological Processes 23: 62–77 DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7197.

  • NORDLI Ø. PRZYBYLAK R. OGILVIE A.E.J. ISAKSEN K. 2014 Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series 1898–2012. Polar Research 33: 21–49.

  • NOWAK A. HODSON A.J. 2013 Hydrological response of a High Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years; A case study of Bayelva River watershed Svalbard. Polar Research 32: 19691.

  • NOWAK M. SOBOTA I. 2015 Artificial neural networks in proglacial discharge simulation: application and efficiency analysis in comparison to the multivariate regression; a case study of Waldemar River (Svalbard). Geografiska Annaler: Series A Physical Geography 97: 489–506.

  • OLSZEWSKI A. 1977 Geomorphological investigations of the marginal zone of Elise Glacier. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Geografia 13: 67–74.

  • OLSZEWSKI A. 1982 Icings and their geomorpho-logical significance exemplified from Oscar II Land and Prins Karls Forland Svalbard. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Geografia 16: 91–122.

  • PRZYBYLAK R. ARAŹNY A. KEJNA M. (eds.) 2012 Topoclimatic diversity in Forlandsundet region (NW Spitsbergen) in global warming conditions. Oficyna Wydawnicza “Turpress” Toruń.

  • PULINA M. 1984 The effects of cryochemical processes in the glaciers. Polish Polar Research 5: 137–163.

  • PULINA M. 1986 Problematyka geomorfologiczna i hydroglacjologiczna polskich wypraw na Spitsbergen w latach 1979 i 1980. Czasopismo Geograficzne 57: 367–392.

  • RACHLEWICZ G. 2009 Contemporary sediment fluxes and relief changes in high Arctic glacierised valley systems (Billefjorden Central Spitsbergen). Seria Geograficzna nr 87 Wyd. UAM Poznań.

  • SOBOTA I. 2000 Ablation and discharge of the Waldemar glacier northwestern Spitsbergen in summer 1998. Polish Polar Research 21: 3–18.

  • SOBOTA I. 2009 The near-surface ice thermal structure of the Waldemarbreen Svalbard. Polish Polar Research 30: 317–338.

  • SOBOTA I. 2011 Snow accumulation melt mass loss and the near-surface ice temperature structure of Irenebreen Svalbard. Polar Science 5: 321–336.

  • SOBOTA I. 2013 Współczesne zmiany kriosfery Północno-Zachodniego Spitsbergenu na przykładzie regionu Kaffiøyry. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK.

  • SOBOTA I. 2014 Changes in dynamics and runoff from the High Arctic glacial catchment of Waldemarbreen Svalbard. Geomorphology 212: 16–27.

  • SOBOTA I. ARAŹNY A. BARCIKOWSKI A. BIRKENMAJER K. GRZEŚ M. GUGNACKA-FIEDOR W. LANKAUF R.K. PLICHTA W. PRZYBYLAK R. ZUBEL P. 2013 Geographical environment in the vicinity of the Nicolaus Copernicus University. [in:] Zwoliński Zb. Kostrzewski A. Pulina M. (eds.) Ancient and modern geoecosystems of Spitsbergen. Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe Poznań: 181–204.

  • WILLIS I.C. RIPPIN D.M. KOHLER J. 2007 Thermal regime changes of the polythermal Midre Lovénbreen Svalbard. [in:] Oerlemans J. Tijm-Reijmer C.H. (eds.) The Dynamics and Mass Budget of Arctic Glaciers. IASC Working Group on Arctic Glaciology Meeting. IMAU: 130–133.

  • ZAPOLSKI R. 1977 Geodetic and Topographic Accomplishments of the „Toruń Polar Expedition Spitsbergen – 1975”. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Geografia 13: 21–37.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 189 60 3
PDF Downloads 147 68 5