Mountaineer’s Waste: Past, Present and Future

Open access

Abstract

The growing number of mountaineers (climbers and trekkers) makes the problem of human waste amount to a considerable size (in tonnes of faeces and cubic metres of urine) of environmental degradation. Purity in the high mountains depends mainly on the mountaineers visiting them (the rule of ‘Leave No Trace’); however, if there is no assured suitable sanitation system, no mountaineer can be blamed for leaving human waste (faeces and urine), because the process of excretion cannot be stopped. The management can address the issue in three ways: complete (non–invasive), partial (superficial), and invasive. Those approaches have been elaborately explained in three case studies: Fuji–san (Japan), Yamunotri (India) and Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), respectively. Each of the places have been described based on the provided human waste disposal solutions, starting from the historical perspective and ending with the plans for future implementations, i.e. how it was, how it is, and how it will be. The results showed the improvement of understanding of the environmental pollution by human waste, at least from the management site. Decent changes have appeared in recent years–management bodies care more about human waste disposal. The authorities of mountain regions are gradually exchanging the old, leaking toilets for brand–new eco–friendly ones. Even if this process is slow–mostly because of economical limitations–management bodies appear to be noticing this threat. However, mountaineers do not always follow the implemented and recommended solution, as this study shows. The users should change their irresponsible behaviour, because even the best solutions in the case of human waste disposal in high–mountain conditions will fail if they do not follow the rules.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Barros A. Berlanga P. Prause P. 2007 Buenas Prácticas para la Conservación de Ecosistemas de Montaña. In: J. Junquera E. Natale P. Prause & A. Barros (Eds.) Capacitación de guias turisticos del monumento natural Puente Del Inca y Laguna De Los Horcones (Parque Provincial Aconcagua) Puente del Inca: Dirección de Recursos Naturales Renovables de Mendoza pp. 185–218.

  • Alley K.D. 1998 Images of waste and purification on the banks of the Ganga. City & Society 10(1) 167–182.

  • Andreychouk V. 2008 Evolution of the geographical environment and contemporary geography. Methodology of Landscape Research 8 5–29.

  • Andreychouk V. 2015 Cultural Landscape Functions. In: M. Luc U. Somorowska and J.B. Szmańda (Eds.) Landscape Analysis and Planning Cham: Springer International Publishing pp. 3–19.

  • Apollo M. 2014a Climbing as a kind of human impact on the high mountain environment–based on the selected peaks of Seven Summits Journal of Selcuk University Natural and Applied Science (Special Issue) 2 1061–71.

  • Apollo M. 2014b Experimental Method for Measuring Non–toilet Mountaineer’s Excrement. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 2 123–129.

  • Apollo M. 2014c Zanieczyszczanie środowiska gór wysokich ekskrementami ludzkimi na przykładzie wybranych szczytów Korony Ziemi. Prace Komisji Krajobrazu Kulturowego 26 199–214.

  • Apollo M. 2015 The clash – social environmental and economical changes in tourism destination areas caused by tourism. the case of Himalayan villages (India and Nepal). Current Issues of Tourism Research 1(5) 6–19.

  • Apollo M. 2016 Mountaineering in the High–Himalaya: The case of the Miyar Valley (Poster). Presented at the 3rd International Conference Geography Environment and GIS for students and young researchers Targoviste Romania 19–21 May.

  • Apollo M. 2017a The Population of Himalayan Regions–by the numbers: past present and future. In: R. Efe and M. Ozturk (Eds.) Contemporary Studies in Environment and Tourism Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing pp. in press.

  • Apollo M. 2017b The true accessibility of mountaineering: the case of the High Himalaya Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • Arnold J. 2010 Performance Evaluation Of Backcountry Solar Toilets Estes Park: Rocky Mountain National Park Estes Park.

  • Baloch Q.B. 2007. Managing Tourism in Pakistan: A Case Study of Chitral Valley. Journal of Managerial Sciences 2 169–190.

  • Barber R. 1993 Pilgrimages London: The Boydell Press.

  • Barros A. & Pickering C.M. 2014 Non–native plant invasion in relation to tourism use of Aconcagua Park Argentina the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere. Mountain Research and Development 34(1) 13–26.

  • Barros A. & Pickering C.M. 2015. Managing human waste on Aconcagua. In: J. Higham A. Thompson–Carr & G. Musa (Eds.) Mountaineering Tourism London and New York: Routledge pp. 219–227.

  • Beedie P. & Hudson S. 2003 Emergence of mountain–based adventure tourism. Annals of tourism research 30(3) 625–643.

  • Bilbrough C.J. Welker J.M. & Bowman W.D. 2000. Early spring nitrogen uptake by snow–covered plants: a comparison of arctic and alpine plant function under the snowpack. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 32(4) 404–411.

  • BKTC. 2016 Shri Badarinath – Shri Kedarnath Temples Committee Pilgrims Statistics Available online at: www.badarikedar.org (accessed 20 April 2016).

  • Bowman W.D. & Steltzer H. 1998 Positive feedbacks to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain alpine tundra. Ambio 27 514–517.

  • Boyle A.S. & Samson F.B. 1985 Effects of nonconsumptive recreation on wildlife: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin 13 110–116.

  • Brassington J. 1999. Wilderness management: human waste & water quality (Doctoral dissertation University of Tasmania).

  • Bridle K.L. & Kirkpatrick J.B. 2003 Impacts of urination and digging cat–holes on natural environments Tasmania Australia. Journal of Environmental Management Journal of Environmental Management 69 299–306.

  • Bridle K.L. & Kirkpatrick J.B. 2005 An analysis of the breakdown of paper products (toilet paper tissues and tampons) in natural environments Tasmania Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 74 21–30.

  • Buckley R.C. Pickering C.M. & Warnken J. 2000. Environmental management for alpine tourism and resorts in Australia. In Godde P.M. Price M.F. and Zimmermann F.M. (Eds.). Tourism and development in mountain regions. Wallingford: CABI 27–45

  • Carr E. Berris M. Hilstad M. & Allen P. 2002 Water Quality and Fecal Contamination on Mt. Aconcagua: Implications for Human Health and High Altitude Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Cater C. Buckley R. Hales R. Newsome D. Pickering C. & Smith A. 2008 High impact activities in parks: Best management practice and future research Gold Coast: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.

  • Census of India 2011 Available online at: www.censusindia.gov.in (accessed 20 April 2016).

  • Cilimburg A. Monz C. & Kehoe S. 2000 Wildland recreation and human waste: a review of problems practices and concerns. Environmental Management 25(6) 587–598.

  • Coalter F. Dimeo P. Morrow S. & Taylor J. 2010 The Benefits of Mountaineering and Mountaineering Related Activities: A Review of Literature. A Report to the Mountaineering Council of Scotland Scotland: University of Stirling.

  • Cole D.N. 1995a Experimental trampling of vegetation. I. Relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. Journal of Applied Ecology 32 203–214.

  • Cole D.N. 1995b Experimental trampling of vegetation. II. Predictors of resistance and resilience. Journal of Applied Ecology 32 215–224.

  • Cole D.N. & Bayfield N. G. 1993 Recreational trampling of vegetation: standard experimental procedures. Biological Conservation 63(3) 209–215.

  • Cole D.N. Petersen M.E. & Lucas R.C. 1987 Managing Wilderness Recreation Use: Common Problems and Potential Solutions General Technical Report INT–259 Ogden: USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station.

  • Collister R. 1984 Adventure versus the mountain. The Alpine Journal 89 123–125.

  • Cordell H.K. Super G.R. 2000 Trends in Americans’ outdoor recreation. In: W.C. Gartner and D.W. Lime (Eds.) Trends in outdoor recreation leisure and tourism Cambridge: Cabi Publishing pp. 133–144.

  • Cowgill P. 1971 Too many people on the Colorado River. The Environmental Journal 45 10–14.

  • Cullen R. 1986 Himalayan Mountaineering Expedition Garbage. Environmental Conservation 13(4) 293–297.

  • Dixon G. & Hawes M. 2015 A longitudinal multi–method study of recreational impacts in the Arthur Range Tasmania Australia. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 9 64–76.

  • DoT. 2012 Directorate of Tourism Uttarakhand Dehradun.

  • Ells M. D. 1997. Impact of human waste disposal on surface water runoff The Muir Snowfield Mount Rainier. Journal of Environmental Health 59(8) 6–12.

  • Ells M.D. & Monz C.A. 2011 The consequences of backcountry surface disposal of human waste in an alpine temperate forest and arid environment. Journal of environmental management 92(4) 1334–1337.

  • Ewert A. 1991 Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting. Presented at 19th International Association for Experiential Education Lake Junaluska NC 24–27 October.

  • Franceys R. Pickford J. & Reed R. 1992 A guide to the development of on–site sanitation Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Gajdon G.K. Fijn N. & Huber L. 2006 Limited spread of innovation in a wild parrot the kea (Nestor notabilis). Animal cognition 9(3) 173–181.

  • Gander H. & Ingold P. 1997 Reactions of male alpine chamois Rupicapra r. rupicapra to hikers joggers and mountainbikers. Biological Conservation 79(1) 107–109.

  • Gauthier M. 2005 Mount Rainier: A climbing guide Seattle: The Mountaineering Books.

  • Gąsiorowski M. & Sienkiewicz E. 2013 The sources of carbon and nitrogen in mountain lakes and the role of human activity in their modification determined by tracking stable isotope composition. Water Air & Soil Pollution 224(4) 1–9.

  • Geneletti D. & Dawa D. 2009 Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh Indian Himalaya. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29(4) 229–242

  • Glaeser B. 2001. The changing human nature relationship (HNR) in the context of GEC. Berlin: SocialScienceResearchCenter.

  • Godde P.M. Price M.F. & Zimmermann F.M. 1999 Tourism and development in mountain regions: moving forward into the new millennium. In: P.M. Godde M.F. Price M. F. & F.M. Zimmermann (Eds.) Tourism and development in mountain regions Cambridge: Cabi Publishing pp. 1–25.

  • Goodwin K. Loso M. G. & Braun M. 2012 Glacial Transport of Human Waste and Survival of Fecal Bacteria on Mt. McKinley’s Kahiltna Glacier Denali National Park Alaska. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 44(4) 432–445.

  • Hackett P.H. & Roach R.C. 2001 High–altitude illness. New England Journal of Medicine 345(2) 107–114.

  • Hammitt W.E. Cole D.N. & Monz C.A. 2015. Wildland recreation: ecology and management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Hempton G. & Grossmann J. 2009 One Square Inch of Silence: One Man’s Search for Natural Silence in a Noisy World New York: Simon and Schuster.

  • Hill G. & Henry G. 2013 The application and performance of urine diversion to minimize waste management costs in remote wilderness environments. International Journal of Wilderness 19(1) 26–33.

  • Hill W. & Pickering C.M. 2006 Vegetation associated with different walking track types in the Kosciuszko alpine area Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 78(1) 24–34.

  • Hughes K.A. 2003. Aerial dispersal and survival of sewage–derived faecal coliforms in Antarctica. Atmospheric Environment 37 3147–3155.

  • Human Waste Management Strategy. 2005 Human Waste Management Strategy: Main Range Management Unit – Kosciuszko National Park (Sydney: New South Wales).

  • Human Waste Management Workshop. 2000 Australian Alps Best Practice Human Waste Management Workshop Canberra: Australian Alps Liaison Committee.

  • Ion L. 2010 Mountain Climbing–Teaching and Definition. Studia Universitatis Babes–Bolyai Educatio Artis Gymnasticae 55(3) 55–59.

  • Jensen M.T. 2013. The Bystander Effect of Trekking Tourism: Proposing a Typology of Environmental Ideal Types. Nepal Tourism and Development Review 1(1) 41–55.

  • Jin–Hyung L. Scott D. & Floyd M.F. 2001 Structural inequalities in outdoor recreation participation: A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Journal of leisure research 33(4) 427–449.

  • Jodłowski M. 2011 Zasady dobrej praktyki w zarządzaniu ruchem wspinaczkowym na obszarach chronionych Kraków: IGiGP UJ.

  • John T.J. Dandona L. Sharma V.P. & Kakkar M. 2011 Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India. The Lancet 377(9761) 252–269.

  • Johnston B.R. & Edwards T. 1994 The commodification of mountaineering. Annals of Tourism Research 21(3) 459–478.

  • Jones C.D. & Hollenhorst S.J. 2002 Toward a resolution of the fixed–anchors in wilderness debate. International Journal of Wilderness 8(3) 15–20.

  • Jones T.E. & Yamamoto K. 2016 Segment–based monitoring of domestic and international climbers at Mount Fuji: Targeted risk reduction strategies for existing and emerging visitor segments. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 13 10–17.

  • Kapoor S. 2002 The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical historical religious administrative ethnological commercial and scientific Volume 5 New Delhi: Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd.

  • Kaseva M.E. 2009 Problems of Solid Waste Management on Mount Kilimanjaro–Challenge to Tourism Waste Management Research 28(8) 695–704.

  • Kedrowski J.J. 2009 Climber’s perceptions on Denali (Mount McKinley): climber demographics hazards and crowding concerns. Denali National Park Investigator’s Annual Report OMB (U.S. Department of the Interior).

  • Kumar S. & Vollmer S. 2013 Does access to improved sanitation reduce childhood diarrhea in rural India?. Health Economics 22(4) 410–427.

  • Kumar Y. 2015 U’khand plans bio–digester toilets on Char Dham Yatra route The Times of India 21 February.

  • Lachapelle P. 1995 A report on human waste management in Sagarmatha National Park Nepal and USA: University of Vermont Burlington VT & School for International Training Kathmandu.

  • Lama W. & Sherpa A. 1994 Tourism Development Plan for the Makalu Base Camp Trek and the Upper Barun Valley. Revised Draft Report. Makalu–Barun Conservation Project.

  • Lama W.B. & Sattar N. 2004 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity. In: M.F. Price L. Jansky & A.A. Iatsenia (Eds.) Key issues for mountain areas Tokyo: United Nations University Press pp. 111–148

  • Leary C. 2000 Waste management in Kosciuszko National Park. Presented at the Australian Alps Best Practice Human Waste Management Workshop Canberra and Jindabyne Australian Alps Liaison Committee 27–31 March.

  • Liddle M. 1997 Recreation Ecology: the Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism London: Chapman and Hall.

  • MacArthur R.A. Geist V. & Johnston R.H. 1982 Cardiac and behavioral responses of mountain sheep to human disturbance. The Journal of Wildlife Management 46(2) 351–358.

  • Manfredi E.C. Flury B. Viviano G. Thakuri S. Khanal S.N. Jha P.K. Maskey R.K. Kayastha R.B. Kafle K.R. Bhochhibhoya S. & Ghimire N.P. 2010. Solid waste and water quality management models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Nepal: implementation of a participatory modeling framework. Mountain Research and Development 30(2) 127–142.

  • Marek A. & Wieczorek M. 2015 Tourist Traffic In The Aconcagua Massif Area. Quaestiones Geographicae 34(3) 65–76.

  • Marion J.L. & Olive N. 2006 Assessing and understanding trail degradation: results from Big South Fork National River and recreational area Blacksburg: US Geological Survey.

  • Maslow A. 1954 Motivation and Personality New York: Harper and Brothers.

  • McLaughlin J.B. 2002 Gastroenteritis outbreak among mountaineers climbing the West Buttress route of Denali–Denali National Park Alaska. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 16 92–96.

  • Messerli B. & Ives J.D. 1997 Mountains of the world: a global priority New York: Parthenon publishing group.

  • Meyer G.H. Morrow M.B. & Wyss O. 1963 Viable organisms from feces and foodstuffs from early Antarctic expeditions. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 9(2) 163–167.

  • Meyer K. 1994 How to Shit in the Woods an Environmentally Sound Approach to a Lost Art Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.

  • Mieczkowski Z. 1995 Environmental issues of tourism and recreation Lanham: University Press of America.

  • Miles–Watson J. & Miles–Watson S.B. 2011 Conflicts and connections in the landscape of the Manimahesh pilgrimage. Turizam: znanstveno–stručni časopis 59(3) 319–333.

  • Musa G. & Thirumoorthi T. 2015 15 Health and safety issues in mountaineering tourism. In: J. Higham A. Thompson–Carr and G. Musa (Eds.) Mountaineering Tourism London and New York: Routledge pp. 294–312.

  • Nepal S.K. 2003 Tourism and the environment: Perspectives from the Nepal Himalaya Innsbruck–Wien–München: Himal Books Patan Dhok & STUDIENVerlag.

  • Norihisa M. & Suzuki W. 2006 Mountainous area management in Japanese national parks: Current status and challenges for the future. Global Environmental Research–English Edition 10(1)125.

  • O’Loughlin T. 1988. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Minimal Impact Bushwalking Campaign Wilderness Education Project Report to the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service and the Australian Parks and Wildlife Service. Hobart: Government Printer.

  • Paliwal A. 2012 Next gen toilets Down to Earth 15 September.

  • Pomfret G. 2006 Mountaineering adventure tourists: A conceptual framework for research. Tourism Management 27(1) 113–123.

  • Price L.W. 1981 Mountains and Man Los Angeles: University of California Press Berkeley.

  • Price M.F. & Messerli B. 2002 Fostering sustainable mountain development: From Rio to the international Year of Mountains and beyond. Unasylva FAO 208(53) 6–17.

  • Price M.F. 1985 Impacts of recreational activities on alpine vegetation in western North America. Mountain Research and Development 5(3) 263–278.

  • Price M.F. 2004 Conservation and sustainable development in mountain areas Gland: IUCN – The World Conservation Union.

  • Pröbstl–Haider U. Dabrowska K. & Haider W. 2016 Risk perception and preferences of mountain tourists in light of glacial retreat and permafrost degradation in the Austrian Alps. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 13 66–78.

  • Pyke K. 2001 Climbing management: a guide to climbing issues and the production a climbing management plan Boulder: Access Fund.

  • Quinn A.J. & Woodward L.S. 2015 Earth’s Landscape: An Encyclopedia of the World’s Geographic Features Oxford: ABC–CLIO.

  • Rassler B. 2014 Experts Ask: Are We Loving Our Mountains to Death? Available online at: www.alpinist.com (accessed 20 April 2016).

  • Reeves H. 1979 Human waste disposal in the Sierran wilderness. In: J. T. Stanley H. T. Harvey and R. J. Hartesveldt (Eds.) Wilderness impact study San Francisco: Sierra Club Outing Committee pp. 129–162.

  • Robinson R. 2010 Leave no waste: The evolution of clean climbing practices. Exit Strategies: Managing human waste in the wild. Golden: American Alpine Club.

  • Roe R. Leader–Williams N. & Dalal–Clayton B. 1997 Take only a photographs leave only footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism London: International Institute for Environment and Development Wildlife and Development Series.

  • Rotillon G. 2006 43 Extreme sports (climbing and mountaineering). In: W. Andreff Szymanski and S. Edward (Eds.) Handbook on the economics of sport Cheltenham: Elgar Publishing Ltd. pp. 411–417.

  • Ryan C. 2003 Recreational tourism: Demand and impacts – Vol. 11 Bristol: Channel View Publications.

  • Salerno F. Cuccillato E. Caroli P. Bajracharya B. Manfredi E.C. Viviano G. Thakuri S. Flury B. Basani M. Giannino F. & Panzeri D. 2010 Experience with a hard and soft participatory modeling framework for social–ecological system management in Mount Everest (Nepal) and K2 (Pakistan) protected areas. Mountain Research and Development 30(2) 80–93.

  • Sati V.P. 2014 Towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountain Regions Cham: Springer.

  • Sati V.P. 2015 Pilgrimage Tourism in Mountain Regions: Socio–Economic and Environmental Implications in the Garhwal Himalaya. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage 8(2) 164–182.

  • Schuster R.M. Thompson J.G. & Hammitt W.E. 2001 Rock climbers’ attitudes toward management of climbing and the use of bolts. Environmental Management 28(3) 403–412.

  • Shah J.J. Nagpal T. & Brandon C. 1997 Urban air quality management strategy in Asia: Guidebook Washington: World Bank Publications.

  • Suk T.J. Sorenson S.K. & Dileanis P.D. 1987 The Relation between Human Presence and Occurrence of Glardia Cysts in Streams in the Sierra Nevada California. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4(1) 71–75.

  • TANAPA [Tanzania National Parks]. 2015 Park arrivals highlights Tourism Performance Corporate Information Tanzania National Parks. Available online at: www.tanzaniaparks.com (accessed 20 April 2016).

  • Taylor L. 2010 The Sister Mountain Curriculum Project Mount Rainier and Mount Fuji A Brief Interview with Peter Conrick and Setsuro Kobayashi. Education about Asia 15(3) 55–58.

  • Taylor S.M. 2007 What if religions had ecologies? The case for reinhabiting religious studies. Journal for the Study of Religion Nature and Culture 1(1) 129–138.

  • Temple K. Camper A. & Lucas R. 1982 Potential health hazard from human wastes in wilderness. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 37(6) 357–359.

  • Timothy D.J. & Nyaupane G.P. (Eds.) 2009 Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: A regional perspective London: Routledge.

  • Tomczyk A.M. & Ewertowski M. 2013 Planning of recreational trails in protected areas: Application of regression tree analysis and geographic information systems. Applied Geography 40 129–139.

  • Ushijima B. 2015 Waste Nothing Bio–toilets: environmentally friendly and no water required. Highlighting Japan March.

  • Wakibara J. Ndesari K. & Mafuru N. 2009 Tourism–related impacts on Mount Kilimanjaro Tanzania: Implications for tourism management on mountain ecosystems. Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends 2(1) 111–123.

  • Walther O. Renaud T. & Kissling J. 2008 Heaven on Earth? The development of tourism in the Dogon Country and the Hombori Mountains (Mali). Articulo–Journal of Urban Research (4) DOI : 10.4000/articulo.417

  • Waseem M. Mohammad I. Khan S. Haider S. & Hussain S.K. 2005 Tourism and Solid Waste Problem in Ayubia National Park Pakistan (A Case Study 2003–2004). Peshawar: WWF–P Nathiagali office.

  • Watling T. 2009 Ecological Imaginations in the World Religions: An Ethnographic Analysis London: A&C Black.

  • Weaver T. Gustafson D. & Lichthardt J. 2001 Exotic plants in early and late seral vegetation of fifteen northern Rocky Mountain environments (HTs). Western North American Naturalist 61(4) 417–427.

  • Weissenbacher N. Mayr E. Niederberger T. Aschauer C. Lebersorger S. Steinbacher G. & Haberl R. 2008 Alpine infrastructure in Central Europe: integral evaluation of wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges. Water Science and Technology 57(12) 2017–2022.

  • Whitlock W. Romer K.V. & Becker R.H. 1991 Nature Based Tourism: An Annotated Bibliography Clemson SC: Strom Thurmond Institute Regional Development Group.

  • WHO and UNICEF 2014 UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme Database Available online at: www.wssinfo.org (accessed 20 April 2016).

  • Wilson M.H. Newman S. & Imray C.H. 2009 The cerebral effects of ascent to high altitudes. The Lancet Neurology 8(2) 175–191.

  • Żemła M. 2014 Inter–destination cooperation: Forms facilitators and inhibitors–The case of Poland. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 3(4) 241–252.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 598 292 16
PDF Downloads 218 119 3