Nonwovens: Global Trends in World Economy, European Foreign Trade, and Selected Case Studies from Poland and Asian Brics Countries

Zofia Wysokińska 1 , Tomasz Czajkowski 1 ,  and Katarzyna Grabowska 2
  • 1 Department of World Economy and European Integration, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Institute of Economics, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  • 2 Faculty of Material Technologies and Textiles Design, Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland
Zofia Wysokińska
  • Department of World Economy and European Integration, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Institute of Economics, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
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, Tomasz Czajkowski
  • Department of World Economy and European Integration, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Institute of Economics, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
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and Katarzyna Grabowska
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Material Technologies and Textiles Design, Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

Nonwovens are one of the most versatile textile materials and have become increasingly popular in almost all sectors of the economy due to their low manufacturing costs and unique properties. In the next few years, the world market of nonwovens is predicted to grow by 7%–8% annually (International Nonwovens & Disposables Association [INDA], European Disposables and Nonwovens Association [EDANA], and Markets and Markets). This article aims to analyze the most recent trends in the global export and import of nonwovens, to present two case studies of Polish companies that produce them, and to present one special case study of the market of nonwoven geotextiles in China and India, which are the Asian transition economies among the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).

1 Introduction

Nonwovens are one of the most versatile and commonly used textile materials. These are textiles made from fibers, bonded together by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or solvent treatments [1]. The term describes any textile product that is neither woven nor knitted, such as a felt, which is mechanically interlocked in a random web [2]. Different production processes, finishing processes, and raw materials are used for their production, which lead to different unique properties that they can have and, therefore, different purposes for which they can be used in the economy. The five main nonwoven production types include meltblown, spunbond/spunlace, drylaid, wetlaid, and airlaid. In order to provide nonwovens with desired mechanical properties, they must be bonded with mechanical, chemical/adhesive, or thermal techniques. Due to their versatile properties, they can be used, inter alia, in hygiene-related products, filters, garments, construction industry, car industry, agriculture, home textiles, decorative textiles, technical solutions, and composites [3, 4]. In the years 2008–2018, the production of nonwovens grew by 5.7% yearly on average globally [5] and by 4% in Europe [6]. The analyses prepared for the reports issued by different international organizations (European Disposables and Nonwovens Association [EDANA], International Nonwovens & Disposables Association [INDA], and Markets and Markets) predict that in the ensuing 3–5 years, the global market of nonwovens will grow by 7%–8% annually [7, 8]. At the same time, in Poland, the domestic demand for nonwovens in the years 2007–2012 grew by 7% annually and, in 2012–2017, by 4% on average; it is predicted that until 2022, the annual growth of this demand will be equal to 3.2% [9].

2 Research goal and methodology

The aim of the article is to analyze the most recent trends in the global export and import of nonwovens, to present two case studies of Polish companies that produce them, and to present one special case study of the market of nonwoven geotextiles in China and India, which are the Asian transition economies among the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).

In order to achieve this goal, the research methods used in the article include literature review, case studies [10, 11], and economic analysis of statistical data. The Internet was used as the main source of information for the case studies concerning the two biggest Polish producers of nonwovens; the official websites of these companies were used. The economic analysis of statistical data was done mostly on the basis of the Eurostat and the United Nations (UN) Comtrade databases.

3 Case studies of Polish producers of nonwovens

The two leading Polish producers of nonwovens are Lentex SA and Novita SA. Lentex SA concentrates on the production of nonwovens for applications in automotive, sanitary, furniture, clothing, filtration, and technical solutions, while Novita SA specializes in production of wipes, medical/hygiene, shoe/clothing, and nonwoven geotextiles. A significant share of their revenues comes from export. Despite difficult market conditions (rapidly growing labor and energy costs, which are the most significant factors in the production of textile materials), both of these companies were able to maintain high profitability over the past years. This was possible due to proper investments in new production equipment and implementation of the so-called “Industry 4.0” solutions. Both companies were active in the field of new investments and both of them recently finished installation of new production lines for spunlace nonwovens, which enabled them to strengthen their position in the hygiene and filtration sectors. On the other hand, Novita SA also implemented a new enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, which should enable improvement in the efficiency of operational activities of the company, as well as of reporting and monitoring of production and logistic processes [12, 13]. Tables 1 and 2 present selected financial results of both companies for the years 2012–2018.

Table 1

Selected financial data of Lentex SA

DataSelected financial data for 2012–2018 (thousands, PLN)
2018201720162015201420132012
Net sales from products, commodities, and materials173,723179,295189,667178,957169,566167,364158,439
Operating profit/loss24,63930,79541,82832,39725,46919,82413,428
Gross profit32,55936,36578,63855,24941,50628,42512,034
Net profit27,83931,05165,07948,68736,23326,0079,980
Total assets290,135304,263299,731313,131319,263320,664320,907
Liabilities and provisions for liabilities61,96477,00779,09176,016109,26667,55380,823
Long-term liabilities7,25432,70742,83920,65435,27136,77447,947
Short-term liabilities54,71044,30036,25255,36273,99530,77932,876
Shareholders’ equity228,171227,256220,640237,115209,997253,111240,084

Source: Own work based on the yearly reports of Lentex SA, obtained from www.lentex.pl on 12.10.2019.

Table 2

Selected financial data of Novita SA

Selected financial data for 2012–2018 (thousands, PLN)
Data2018201720162015201420132012
Net sales from products, commodities, and materials86,55189,80692,21183,56784,22482,01688,076
Operating profit/loss13,12915,83620,70513,54912,4218,5267,663
Gross profit13,24814,79320,91013,28812,2278,1777,448
Net profit10,68811,92216,91010,6459,8826,5906,038
Total assets155,092119,816108,07093,25194,89397,38496,995
Liabilities and provisions for liabilities39,86815,26115,43117,49612,48721,17419,251
Long-term liabilities7,5717,2746,9407,0628,5569,79310,248
Short-term liabilities32,2977,9878,49110,4343,93111,3819,003
Shareholders’ equity115,224104,55592,63975,75582,40676,21077,744

Source: Own work based on the yearly reports of Novita SA, obtained from www.novita.pl on 12.10.2019.

As can be seen, both companies were able to achieve significant profits and their overall financial situation is very good. It is predicted that they will maintain good position on the market and further develop their operational capacities.

4 Case study of the market of nonwoven geotextiles

The market size of nonwoven geotextiles in Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia Pacific was estimated to be USD 4.12 billion in 2017. Government policies for the use of geotextiles in infrastructural development of inaccessible hilly areas and in BRICS economies (especially such as China and India) are likely to drive product demand. In addition, favorable regulations pertaining to the use of geotextiles for prevention of erosion can complement their growth (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Figure 1

Chinese market size for nonwoven geotextiles made from different materials and estimates for the future. Source: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nonwoven-geotextiles-market, date of access 11.11.2019 [14].

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

The increasing demand for nonwoven geotextiles is attributed to their properties, including separation, filtration, reinforcement, drainage, and protection of soil. Substances and particles present in soil vary in size and may lead to an undesired mixture due to the mechanical stress and wear and tear. Nonwoven geotextiles aid in separation of these materials, thereby enabling passage of water while retaining the soil particles. This process is utilized during the construction of roads, pavements, and fields. The product can enhance safety in terms of the lifespan of roads, dams, and embankments, which in turn is also expected to drive the demand.

The market is very fragmented at the global level and consolidated at the regional level. Local markets are dominated by the presence of a large number of players of similar size, which creates an oligopolistic market with consistently similar pricing strategies. It is expected that the growth of megacities in China and India, combined with the rapid development of infrastructure in the region, will drive demand for these products in the near future. Low barriers to entry into this market create attractive opportunities for new participants, thus increasing competition. Outstanding players in this industry focus on technological innovation to gain a significant market share. These mainly include companies such as Royal TenCate, GSE Holding, Inc., NAUE Group, and Officine Maccaferri SpA.

5 Results of the analysis of import and export trends on the global, European, and Polish markets for nonwovens

Research into the trends was based on Eurostat [15] and UN Comtrade [16] statistics for 2015–2017 for world imports and exports, broken down into major importers and exporters of nonwovens, and analysis of the research results was conducted. The analysis took into account the values of imports and exports, the dynamics of imports and exports of individual trading partners, as well as their shares in the global imports and exports in the analyzed years. The results for countries of the European Union (EU) and for Poland were analyzed and evaluated in a similar way.

The global import demand for nonwovens was more than USD 13 billion in the last investigable years 2015–2017 (years with the availability of data) and was characterized by a growing tendency. The top 10 largest importers of nonwovens included in the last audited year 2017 were the USA, Germany, China, Japan, Mexico, Great Britain, Poland, Canada, Italy, and South Korea; other highly ranked positions in the ranking were taken by countries such as France, Vietnam Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, Indonesia, Russia, India, Turkey, China–Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Romania, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Egypt, Australia, and Slovakia (see Table Imp.1a and Figure Imp.1a in Annex I). In addition, the detailed data for the shares of main importers in the analyzed years are also presented (see data presented in Table Imp.2a and Figure Imp.2a in Annex I).

In the last investigated year 2017, the share of all the abovementioned importers of nonwovens accounted for ~40% of the global imports of these products.

Analysis of the dynamics of import for the main importers of nonwovens on the world market shows that according to the ranking prepared for the last surveyed years, i.e., 2017 compared to 2016, six developing countries, such as Gambia, Namibia, Brunei Darussalam, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, achieved the highest import dynamics (>100%), while, simultaneously, a further 45 mainly developing countries achieved the dynamics of import growth from ~93% to ~10% (according to own calculations based on the UN Comtrade database; see Table Imp.3a in Annex I).

Among the EU countries, the most important importers of nonwovens in 2015–2017 were Germany, Great Britain, Poland, Italy, France, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, and Romania. In 2016, there was a decrease in the value of imports compared to the value in 2015, but in 2017, imports of nonwovens increased significantly, especially in countries such as Germany, Poland, Italy, France, the Czech Republic, and Spain (see data presented in Table Imp.4a and Figure Imp.4a in Annex I). The EU countries that recorded the highest import dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 were Belgium, Latvia, Cyprus, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Denmark, Lithuania, Italy, Austria, and Slovenia. Negative dynamics of imports of nonwovens characterized countries such as Hungary, the Netherlands, Bulgaria, Luxembourg, and Malta (see data presented in Table Imp.5a and Figure Imp.5a in Annex I).

In 2017, EU countries achieved ~40% share in the global import of nonwovens. Among them, the highest (>1%) share in the global import of nonwovens was recorded in 2017: Germany (7.73%), Great Britain (3.7%), Poland (3.33%), Italy (3.20%), France (3.13%), Belgium (2.89%), the Czech Republic (2.69%), the Netherlands (2.24%), Spain (2.09%), Romania (1.24%), Austria (1.18%), and Sweden (1.02%) (see Table Imp.6a and Figure Imp.6a in Annex I).

Poland is one of the world's important importers of nonwovens, reaching the seventh position in world imports in 2017 and the third place among the EU countries. The largest suppliers of nonwovens on the Polish market include Germany, Italy, Sweden, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, France, China, Denmark, Turkey, Spain, and Saudi Arabia (see Table Imp.7a and Figure Imp.7a in Annex I). These countries recorded the following shares in the import of nonwovens to Poland in 2017: Germany: 24.72%, Italy: 13.72%, Sweden: 8.20%, the Czech Republic: 6.04%, the Netherlands: 5.78%, France: 5.55%, China: 5.29%, Denmark: 3.666%, Turkey: 3.46%, Spain: 2.69%, Saudi Arabia: 2.56%, and the Russian Federation: 2.16% (see Table Imp.9a and Figure Imp.9a in Annex I)

Imports from countries such as Norway, Estonia, Malaysia, Ukraine, Portugal, and Switzerland were characterized by the highest import dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 (see Table Imp.8a and Figure Imp.8a in Annex I).

In turn, the world exports of nonwovens in the last investigable years 2015–2017 (as per the available data) was almost USD 14 billion and was characterized by an upward trend, especially in 2017 compared to 2016. The group comprising the following 20 countries was the largest exporters of nonwovens in 2017: Germany, the USA, Italy, Japan, France, Turkey, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Luxembourg, Israel, Great Britain, Sweden, Malaysia, Poland, Denmark, and China–Hong Kong SAR. Another 10 countries followed them: Canada, India, Slovenia, Brazil, Mexico, Austria, Vietnam, Egypt, Indonesia, and Hungary (see Table Exp.1a and Figure Exp.1a in Annex II). The ranking of the calculated shares of exporter countries and world exports of nonwovens in 2017 shows that the dominant position (>53% of world exports) on the world export market is occupied by exporters from four countries: China, Germany, the USA, and Japan. Another share of >35% in the global nonwovens export market belongs to 16 countries: France, Turkey, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Luxembourg, Israel, Great Britain, Sweden, Malaysia, Poland, Denmark, and China–Hong Kong SAR. Among the 30 largest world exporters of nonwovens, >7% of shares are occupied by countries such as Canada, India, Slovenia, Brazil, Mexico, Austria, Vietnam, Egypt, Indonesia, and Hungary (see Table Exp.3a and Figure Exp.3a in Annex II). In contrast, the highest export dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 was recorded in seven countries, namely, Oman, Uruguay, Belgium, Montenegro, Dominican Republic, Iran, and Egypt, achieving a result >100%, and a further 19 countries achieved the dynamics of import growth at that time from 20% to 74% (see Table Exp.2a and Figure Exp.2a in Annex II).

Among the EU countries, the most important exporters of nonwovens in 2015–2017 were Germany and Italy (their total share in EU exports exceeded 48% in 2017, but compared to 2016, there was a downward trend in these shares), followed by France, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Poland, Denmark, Slovenia, and Austria (see Table Exp.4a and Figure Exp.4a in Annex II).

The EU countries that recorded the highest dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 were Belgium (almost 193%), followed by Romania, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Finland, Spain, and Sweden (see Table Exp.5a and Figure Exp.5a in Annex II). In 2017, the EU countries achieved >46% share in the global exports of nonwovens (see Table Exp.6a and Figure Exp.6a in Annex II). Among them, the highest share was recorded in 2017 by Germany (14.21%) and Italy (8.30%). The next positions were taken by France, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, Luxembourg, Great Britain, Sweden, Poland, and Denmark, which together reached almost 21% share in the global exports of nonwovens. The remaining EU countries accounted for only about 3% (see Table Exp.6a and Figure Exp.6a in Annex II).

Poland is one of the major exporters of nonwovens in the world, having achieved 18th position in world exports in 2017 and 11th among EU Member States. The largest recipients of nonwovens from Poland include Germany and the USA, Ukraine (which accounts for about 30% of the total exports of nonwovens from Poland to the world market), followed by Great Britain, Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Romania, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Hungary, Greece, Austria, and Denmark, which received a total of >53% of nonwoven exports from Poland to the world market (see Table Exp.6a and Figure Exp.6a in Annex II; compare also the shares of main recipients of Polish exports of nonwovens in Table Exp. 9a and Figure Exp. 9a in Annex II).

The largest export dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 was found in Polish exports to countries such as Greece, Algeria, New Zealand, Uruguay, Croatia, Albania, Slovenia, Singapore, and Kyrgyzstan. Good results in terms of export dynamics were also achieved in exports to Kazakhstan, Portugal, Montenegro, Moldova, Norway, and Turkey (see Table Exp.8a and Figure Exp.8a in Annex II).

6 Conclusion

  1. -In recent years, the nonwoven market has been one of the most developing markets in the world, as well as in European and especially Asian BRICS economies. This is due to the growing demand for nonwovens, especially for nonwoven geotextiles, the market size of which in Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia Pacific was estimated at USD 4.12 billion in 2017.
  2. -The demand for nonwovens is generated by many sectors of the economy, especially due to their wide application in agriculture and horticulture, in the road and bridge construction sector, in the sports services sector, e.g., for long-term maintenance of ski slopes and other similar solutions.
  3. -World exports of nonwovens achieved the level of almost USD 14 billion in the past few years and were characterized by an upward trend, especially in 2017 compared to 2016. The dominant position (>53% of world exports) on the world export market is occupied by exporters from four countries: China, Germany, the USA, and Japan, but countries such as Italy, France, Turkey, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Luxembourg, Israel, Great Britain, Sweden, Malaysia, Poland, and Denmark also were the major exporters.
  4. -The EU countries that recorded the highest dynamics in 2017 compared to 2016 were Belgium (almost 193%) and then Romania, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Finland, Spain, and Sweden. These EU countries achieved >46% share in global exports of nonwovens in the year 2017.
  5. -Poland also belongs to the group of significant exporters of nonwovens in the world, reaching 18th position in global exports in 2017 and 11th among EU Member States.
  6. -Global import demand for nonwovens was characterized by a clearly growing tendency. The top 10 largest importers of nonwovens were the USA, Germany, China, Japan, Mexico, Great Britain, Poland, Canada, Italy, and South Korea.
  7. -Among the EU countries, the most important importers of nonwovens recently were Germany, Great Britain, Poland, Italy, France, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, and Romania.
  8. -Poland is one of the world's important importers of nonwovens, reaching the seventh position in world imports in 2017 and the third place among the EU countries.

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    NONWOVENS-INDUSTRY. Web site: https://www.nonwovens-industry.com/contents/view_breaking-news/2019-05-30/edana-releases-2018-statistics/. Data obtained on 11.10.2019.

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ANNEX I
Table Imp. 1a

Imports of nonwovens by major world importers -whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015
1USA1 343 616.911 342 543.731 337 897.18
2Germany1 058 146.23966 134.32992 553.60
3China896 653.25843 380.37859 889.29
4Japan813 370.04713 149.19678 463.05
5Mexico593 467.14570 978.84592 752.23
6United Kingdom506 199.20472 507.40542 118.05
7Poland455 624.49426 202.08399 405.88
8Canada455 488.24416 220.14387 321.14
9Italy438 164.47391 359.05392 956.58
10Rep. of Korea433 970.24398 585.99361 005.39
11France428 186.47395 517.71400 407.37
12Viet Nam427 605.27421 451.02390 821.55
13Belgium395 489.85294 967.63351 674.59
14Czechia368 383.89338 921.55326 374.23
15Netherlands307 138.35312 602.62296 731.97
16Spain286 061.72260 603.02251 860.35
17Indonesia274 975.37295 254.84274 052.78
18Russian Federation231 759.97219 470.57203 166.72
19India219 784.07202 826.78193 222.23
20Turkey219 139.75192 736.88258 720.92
21China, Hong Kong SAR180 101.12193 303.48218 327.81
22Romania169 856.73145 425.73139 838.86
23Austria161 554.87144 675.10138 616.56
24Brazil161 214.01130 755.35152 601.29
25Switzerland146 386.17142 820.54147 251.71
26Sweden139 129.06127 987.04132 011.04
27Egypt133 391.41128 073.86114 928.28
28Australia110 243.28101 862.7694 243.74
29Slovakia106 542.69102 742.0293 458.0
Total11 461 644.2410 693 059.6010 722 672.39
World import total (%)13 693 918 75713 160 473 22513 152 225 761

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 1a
Figure Imp. 1a

Import of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

Source as: in the Table Imp. 1.a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 2a

Shares of main importers in world imports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in world total import of nonwovens (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share in total world import 2017Share in total world import 2016Share in total world import 2015
1USA1 343 616.911 342 543.731 337 897.189.8110.2010.17
2Germany1 058 146.23966 134.32992 553.607.737.347.55
3China896 653.25843 380.37859 889.296.556.416.54
4Japan813 370.04713 149.19678 463.055.945.425.16
5Mexico593 467.14570 978.84592 752.234.334.344.51
6United Kingdom506 199.20472 507.40542 118.053.703.594.12
7Poland455 624.49426 202.08399 405.883.333.243.04
8Canada455 488.24416 220.14387 321.143.333.162.94
9Italy438 164.47391 359.05392 956.583.202.972.99
10Rep. of Korea433 970.24398 585.99361 005.393.173.032.74
11France428 186.47395 517.71400 407.373.133.013.04
12Viet Nam427 605.27421 451.02390 821.553.123.202.97
13Belgium395 489.85294 967.63351 674.592.892.242.67
14Czechia368 383.89338 921.55326 374.232.692.582.48
15Netherlands307 138.35312 602.62296 731.972.242.382.26
16Spain286 061.72260 603.02251 860.352.091.981.91
17Indonesia274 975.37295 254.84274 052.782.012.242.08
18Russian Federation231 759.97219 470.57203 166.721.691.671.54
19India219 784.07202 826.78193 222.231.601.541.47
20Turkey219 139.75192 736.88258 720.921.601.461.97
21China, Hong Kong SAR180 101.12193 303.48218 327.811.321.471.66
22Romania169 856.73145 425.73139 838.861.241.111.06
23Austria161 554.87144 675.10138 616.561.181.101.05
24Brazil161 214.01130 755.35152 601.291.180.991.16
25Switzerland146 386.17142 820.54147 251.711.071.091.12
26Sweden139 129.06127 987.04132 011.041.020.971.00
27Egypt133 391.41128 073.86114 928.280.970.970.87
28Australia110 243.28101 862.7694 243.740.810.770.72
29Slovakia106 542.69102 742.0293 458.000.780.780.71
30Morocco97 876.3194 004.5771 895.430.710.710.55
31Malaysia97 636.4579 477.8581 830.870.710.600.62
32Algeria96 090.3195 543.0194 698.850.700.730.72
33Denmark92 623.3381 383.0875 976.840.680.620.58
34South Africa91 675.0688 442.5091 059.880.670.670.69
35Luxembourg87 352.7791 759.7693 876.710.640.700.71
36Hungary80 102.6580 613.6870 139.010.580.610.53
37Colombia79 022.1080 461.48112 782.900.580.610.86
38Pakistan78 001.5262 213.2552 702.220.570.470.40
39Argentina75 165.2879 317.8586 731.640.550.600.66
40Portugal70 421.5659 986.1063 097.850.510.460.48
41Chile69 391.0269 358.8278 207.530.510.530.59
42Ukraine68 775.6262 698.8660 958.140.500.480.46

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 2a
Figure Imp. 2a

Shares of main importers in world import of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Imp. 2a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 3a

Dynamics of import of non-wovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016 (%)Dynamics 2016–2015 (%)
1Gambia64.9320.4431.77217.61−35.64
2Namibia631.10258.24226.07144.3814.23
3Brunei Darussalam946.67389.41517.66143.10−24.77
4Azerbaijan3 485.951 439.052 799.03142.24−48.59
5Saint Kitts and Nevis29.2612.3117.09137.66−27.99
6Mongolia1 695.99813.08422.83108.5992.29
7Senegal759.08391.75709.8093.77−44.81
8Côte d’Ivoire9 658.705 010.712 425.5292.76106.58
9Malawi132.3875.8464.3474.5517.87
10Togo1 541.82914.53387.1268.59136.24
11Montenegro1 327.03859.54933.5554.39−7.93
12Aruba20.9413.7127.9952.71−51.01
13Mauritius1 952.041 287.681 477.6651.59−12.86
14Palau2.421.611.3550.5919.36
15Swaziland549.53367.35354.8749.593.52
16Jordan16 136.7511 034.3512 273.8046.24−10.10
17Fiji183.46125.87290.3845.76−56.65
18Bermuda18.8813.4216.6040.66−19.14
19Myanmar4 312.943 146.671 406.6537.06123.70
20Mozambique500.01372.12794.5234.37−53.16
21Belgium395 489.85294 967.63351 674.5934.08−16.12
22Nigeria41 956.3731 932.26:31.39:
23Kyrgyzstan7 969.986 071.713 762.7031.2661.37
24Ecuador37 961.3428 961.8941 086.1931.07−29.51
25TFYR of Macedonia13 507.5610 361.5310 014.7730.363.46
26Latvia9 294.067 155.427 574.9229.89−5.54
27Oman4 329.413 361.593 205.8428.794.86
28Albania8 009.256 221.104 017.4428.7454.85
29Pakistan78 001.5262 213.2552 702.2225.3818.05
30Serbia45 005.3636 367.5031 099.4023.7516.94
31Nepal1 361.701 101.60605.1423.6182.04
32Brazil161 214.01130 755.35152 601.2923.29−14.32
33Bolivia (Plurinational State of)3 251.022 646.292 589.7022.852.19
34Malaysia97 636.4579 477.8581 830.8722.85−2.88
35Rep. of Moldova15 755.8812 860.059 137.1422.5240.74
36Iceland966.98790.44643.6722.3322.80
37Sri Lanka16 950.9014 274.3413 915.5318.752.58
38Cyprus2 344.321 979.572 928.5918.43−32.41
39Portugal70 421.5659 986.1063 097.8517.40−4.93
40Romania169 856.73145 425.73139 838.8616.804.00
41Bosnia Herzegovina38 455.5933 089.6130 847.1916.227.27
42Greece54 859.9547 208.7044 118.2216.217.01
43Paraguay4 346.313 780.963 422.6414.9510.47
44Japan813 370.04713 149.19678 463.0514.055.11
45Denmark92 623.3381 383.0875 976.8413.817.12
46Turkey219 139.75192 736.88258 720.9213.70−25.50
47Lithuania28 351.5225 238.5222 925.2112.3310.09
48Italy438 164.47391 359.05392 956.5811.96−0.41
49Zimbabwe1 216.941 088.84994.9311.779.44
50Austria161 554.87144 675.10138 616.5611.674.37
51Slovenia33 369.9930 315.7830 992.3810.07−2.18
52Spain286 061.72260 603.02251 860.359.773.47
53Finland64 474.7258 776.3956 292.349.694.41
54Ukraine68 775.6262 698.8660 958.149.692.86
55Germany1 058 146.23966 134.32992 553.609.52−2.66
56Canada455 488.24416 220.14387 321.149.437.46
57Armenia1 681.231 541.69965.539.0559.67
58Rep. of Korea433 970.24398 585.99361 005.398.8810.41
59Sweden139 129.06127 987.04132 011.048.71−3.05
60Czechia368 383.89338 921.55326 374.238.693.84
61India219 784.07202 826.78193 222.238.364.97
62Dominican Rep.19 341.0017 852.2121 432.188.34−16.70
63France428 186.47395 517.71400 407.378.26−1.22
64Australia110 243.28101 862.7694 243.748.238.08
65Norway57 360.3253 191.9056 637.077.84−6.08
66El Salvador5 180.764 821.604 584.387.455.17
67Lebanon15 170.5714 154.2513 313.797.186.31
68United Kingdom506 199.20472 507.40542 118.057.13−12.84
69Kazakhstan17 461.9916 318.4723 213.687.01−29.70
70Croatia37 002.3434 584.2034 664.776.99−0.23
71Poland455 624.49426 202.08399 405.886.906.71
72Estonia13 555.7012 691.9012 509.666.811.46
73Ireland40 001.4337 545.9234 521.946.548.76
74China896 653.25843 380.37859 889.296.32−1.92
75Russian Federation231 759.97219 470.57203 166.725.608.02
76Uruguay9 780.389 296.038 647.835.217.50

Notes:n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified: data not available

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of export in year t; xt−1 – value of export in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Table Imp. 4a

Imports of nonwovens by EU countries (28) -whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) and its share in total EU28 import–ranking for 2017

No.Country2017Share in total EU28 import 2017 (%)2016Share in total EU28 import 2016 (%)2015Share in total EU28 import 2015 (%)
1Germany1 058.1519.31966.1319.34992.5519.64
2United Kingdom506.209.24472.519.46542.1210.73
3Poland455.628.32426.208.53399.417.90
4Italy438.168.00391.367.83392.967.78
5France428.197.82395.527.92400.417.92
6Belgium395.497.22294.975.90351.676.96
7Czechia368.386.72338.926.78326.376.46
8Netherlands307.145.61312.606.26296.735.87
9Spain286.065.22260.605.22251.864.98
10Romania169.863.10145.432.91139.842.77
11Austria161.552.95144.682.90138.622.74
12Sweden139.132.54127.992.56132.012.61
13Slovakia106.541.94102.742.0693.461.85
14Denmark92.621.6981.381.6375.981.50
15Luxembourg87.351.5991.761.8493.881.86
16Hungary80.101.4680.611.6170.141.39
17Portugal70.421.2959.991.2063.101.25
18Finland64.471.1858.781.1856.291.11
19Greece54.861.0047.210.9544.120.87
20Bulgaria44.200.8145.660.9144.570.88
21Ireland40.000.7337.550.7534.520.68
22Croatia37.000.6834.580.6934.660.69
23Slovenia33.370.6130.320.6130.990.61
24Lithuania28.350.5225.240.5122.930.45
25Estonia13.560.2512.690.2512.510.25
26Latvia9.290.177.160.147.570.15
27Cyprus2.340.041.980.042.930.06
28Malta::1.070.020.880.02
TOTAL5 478.43100.004 995.61100.005 053.08100.00

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 4a
Figure Imp. 4a

Import of non-wovens by EU (28) countries, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) – ranking for 2017

Source: See Table Imp 4a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 5a

Imports dynamics of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD, %) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016Dynamics 2016–2015
1Belgium395.49294.97351.6734.08−16.12
2Latvia9.297.167.5729.89−5.54
3Cyprus2.341.982.9318.43−32.41
4Portugal70.4259.9963.1017.40−4.93
5Romania169.86145.43139.8416.804.00
6Greece54.8647.2144.1216.217.01
7Denmark92.6281.3875.9813.817.12
8Lithuania28.3525.2422.9312.3310.09
9Italy438.16391.36392.9611.96−0.41
10Austria161.55144.68138.6211.674.37
11Slovenia33.3730.3230.9910.07−2.18
12Spain286.06260.60251.869.773.47
13Finland64.4758.7856.299.694.41
14Germany1 058.15966.13992.559.52−2.66
15Sweden139.13127.99132.018.71−3.05
16Czechia368.38338.92326.378.693.84
17France428.19395.52400.418.26−1.22
18United Kingdom506.20472.51542.127.13−12.84
19Croatia37.0034.5834.666.99−0.23
20Poland455.62426.20399.416.906.71
21Estonia13.5612.6912.516.811.46
22Ireland40.0037.5534.526.548.76
23Slovakia106.54102.7493.463.709.93
24Hungary80.1080.6170.14−0.6314.93
25Netherlands307.14312.60296.73−1.755.35
26Bulgaria44.2045.6644.57−3.212.45
27Luxembourg87.3591.7693.88−4.80−2.26
28Malta:1.070.88:20.65
TOTAL5 478.434 995.615 053.089.66−1.14

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of export in year t; xt−1 – value of export in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp 5a
Figure Imp 5a

Imports dynamics of import of non-wovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

Source: see Table Imp 2a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 6a

Shares of imports of nonwovens, in total world import of nonwovens (%) whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share in total world import 2017Share in total world import 2016Share in total world import 2015
1Germany1 058.15966.13992.557.737.347.55
2United Kingdom506.20472.51542.123.703.594.12
3Poland455.62426.20399.413.333.243.04
4Italy438.16391.36392.963.202.972.99
5France428.19395.52400.413.133.013.04
6Belgium395.49294.97351.672.892.242.67
7Czechia368.38338.92326.372.692.582.48
8Netherlands307.14312.60296.732.242.382.26
9Spain286.06260.60251.862.091.981.91
10Romania169.86145.43139.841.241.111.06
11Austria161.55144.68138.621.181.101.05
12Sweden139.13127.99132.011.020.971.00
13Slovakia106.54102.7493.460.780.780.71
14Denmark92.6281.3875.980.680.620.58
15Luxembourg87.3591.7693.880.640.700.71
16Hungary80.1080.6170.140.580.610.53
17Portugal70.4259.9963.100.510.460.48
18Finland64.4758.7856.290.470.450.43
19Greece54.8647.2144.120.400.360.34
20Bulgaria44.2045.6644.570.320.350.34
21Ireland40.0037.5534.520.290.290.26
22Croatia37.0034.5834.660.270.260.26
23Slovenia33.3730.3230.990.240.230.24
24Lithuania28.3525.2422.930.210.190.17
25Estonia13.5612.6912.510.100.100.10
26Latvia9.297.167.570.070.050.06
27Cyprus2.341.982.930.020.020.02
28Malta:1.070.88:0.010.01
TOTAL5 478.434 995.615 053.0840.0137.9638.42

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 6a
Figure Imp. 6a

Shares of imports of nonwovens, in world total imports of nonwovens(%) whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. – ranking for 2017

Source: See Table Imp. 6a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 7a

Imports to Poland from main suppliers o f nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015
1Germany112 647.64103 510.65113 528.25
2Italy62 524.9056 795.9441 349.46
3Sweden37 374.0537 626.5124 523.09
4Czechia27 517.7529 394.3130 899.55
5Netherlands26 331.7222 280.9215 586.88
6France25 282.3823 131.2516 812.27
7China24 084.2819 754.8917 710.43
8Denmark16 675.5019 720.3226 821.59
9Turkey15 742.3217 495.9214 886.88
10Spain12 266.1112 481.576 629.23
11Saudi Arabia11 670.2713 952.4522 747.27
12Russian Federation9 847.175 984.583 858.71
13Finland9 071.354 783.734 133.70
14Israel8 793.415 200.285 830.45
15Belarus8 406.367 645.057 917.84
16USA7 439.948 060.839 969.48
17Belgium5 727.524 977.185 260.10
18Greece4 607.363 384.442 851.30
19Rep. of Korea4 349.546 155.113 723.23
20United Kingdom4 114.285 302.056 439.79
21Japan3 552.652 622.611 506.20
22Slovenia3 167.273 059.352 956.93
23Luxembourg3 161.482 836.313 381.18
24Hungary3 064.592 926.862 488.11
25Austria2 359.672 348.603 065.59
26Switzerland1 147.72533.841 057.80
27Ukraine1 099.53377.24132.49
28Thailand1 028.671 143.421 118.75
Total453 055.38423 486.21397 186.51

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 7a
Figure Imp. 7a

Imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Imp. 7a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 8a

Dynamics of imports of main partners in imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016Dynamics 2016–2015
1Norway45.880.452.9310164.43−84.76
2Estonia20.740.6847.472954.34−98.57
3Malaysia688.3359.33297.771060.25−80.08
4Ukraine1 099.53377.24132.49191.47184.74
5Portugal151.9558.86185.23158.14−68.22
6Switzerland1 147.72533.841 057.80114.99−49.53
7Finland9 071.354 783.734 133.7089.6315.73
8Israel8 793.415 200.285 830.4569.09−10.81
9Russian Federation9 847.175 984.583 858.7164.5455.09
10Slovakia405.43256.73412.6957.92−37.79
11Indonesia70.4049.5623.3142.05112.64
12Greece4 607.363 384.442 851.3036.1318.70
13Japan3 552.652 622.611 506.2035.4674.12
14China24 084.2819 754.8917 710.4321.9211.54
15Latvia47.3238.9040.0221.64−2.81
16Netherlands26 331.7222 280.9215 586.8818.1842.95
17Belgium5 727.524 977.185 260.1015.08−5.38
18Luxembourg3 161.482 836.313 381.1811.46−16.11
19Italy62 524.9056 795.9441 349.4610.0937.36
20Belarus8 406.367 645.057 917.849.96−3.45
21France25 282.3823 131.2516 812.279.3037.59
22Germany112 647.64103 510.65113 528.258.83−8.82
23Hungary3 064.592 926.862 488.114.7117.63
24Slovenia3 167.273 059.352 956.933.533.46
25Bulgaria165.79161.725.922.522630.42
Total314 113.12270 431.35247 377.4216.159.32

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of import in year t; xt−1 – value of import in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 8a
Figure Imp. 8a

Dynamics of import to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

Source: As under the Table Imp. 8a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Imp. 9a

Shares of main partners in total imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share 2017 (%)Share 2016 (%)Share 2015 (%)
1Germany112 647.64103 510.65113 528.2524.7224.2928.42
2Italy62 524.9056 795.9441 349.4613.7213.3310.35
3Sweden37 374.0537 626.5124 523.098.208.836.14
4Czechia27 517.7529 394.3130 899.556.046.907.74
5Netherlands26 331.7222 280.9215 586.885.785.233.90
6France25 282.3823 131.2516 812.275.555.434.21
7China24 084.2819 754.8917 710.435.294.644.43
8Denmark16 675.5019 720.3226 821.593.664.636.72
9Turkey15 742.3217 495.9214 886.883.464.113.73
10Spain12 266.1112 481.576 629.232.692.931.66
11Saudi Arabia11 670.2713 952.4522 747.272.563.275.70
12Russian Federation9 847.175 984.583 858.712.161.400.97
13Finland9 071.354 783.734 133.701.991.121.03
14Israel8 793.415 200.285 830.451.931.221.46
15Belarus8 406.367 645.057 917.841.851.791.98
16USA7 439.948 060.839 969.481.631.892.50
17Belgium5 727.524 977.185 260.101.261.171.32
18Greece4 607.363 384.442 851.301.010.790.71
19Rep. of Korea4 349.546 155.113 723.230.951.440.93
20United Kingdom4 114.285 302.056 439.790.901.241.61
Total455 624.49426 202.08399 405.88100.00100.00100.00

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Imp. 9a
Figure Imp. 9a

Shares of main partners in imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world import of nonwovens to Poland (%) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Imp. 9a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

ANNEX II
Table Exp. 1a

Exports of nonwovens by major world exporters, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015
1China2 626 212.232 555 975.052 486 089.53
2Germany2 057 288.861 897 239.831 903 598.14
3USA1 860 662.691 730 157.521 805 941.43
4Italy1 201 280.541 096 526.961 075 041.21
5Japan686 645.48655 805.09603 624.18
6France483 292.26487 327.85494 561.68
7Turkey478 776.46433 025.44365 189.01
8Belgium409 460.96139 811.18408 573.00
9Czechia381 328.35347 822.54345 145.86
10Netherlands375 552.17343 812.79303 198.43
11Rep. of Korea370 787.09373 003.95401 157.58
12Spain346 144.41312 471.95303 213.73
13Luxembourg303 988.61299 139.03299 817.51
14Israel278 477.00253 914.00265 591.00
15United Kingdom188 471.70177 771.45209 052.91
16Sweden180 377.80163 206.97159 152.52
17Malaysia169 026.34144 301.84147 252.41
18Poland167 682.44160 171.16129 768.66
19Denmark159 970.35153 684.27156 624.05
20China, Hong Kong SAR147 042.15178 735.51185 473.04
21Canada129 420.08115 968.23116 323.34
22India118 710.26112 031.1787 801.44
23Slovenia117 290.13112 644.9698 425.36
24Brazil114 271.1498 696.14138 485.63
25Mexico110 250.4173 532.1873 568.12
26Austria107 392.4899 036.4297 135.98
27Viet Nam92 890.8876 878.0956 112.82
28Egypt91 990.5445 781.2040 486.61
29Indonesia89 424.1970 933.1976 205.81
30Hungary63 380.0149 553.4050 956.89
Total13 907 488.0112 758 959.3312 883 567.84
Share in total world export (%)0.960.910.91

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12 483 292.26

Figure Exp. 1a
Figure Exp. 1a

Exports of nonwovens by major world exporters, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Exp.1a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 2a

Dynamics of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016 (%)Dynamics 2016–2015 (%)
8Oman107.7321.580.31399.256 816.35
9Uruguay11 850.333 353.3630.07253.3911 051.86
10Belgium409 460.96139 811.18408 573.00192.87−65.78
11Montenegro0.110.044.12189.19−99.10
12Dominican Rep.1 100.55478.05474.85130.220.67
13Iran4 974.622 431.26:104.61:
14Egypt91 990.5445 781.2040 486.61100.9413.08
15Kuwait56.6632.520.1074.2332 746.46
16Costa Rica446.68269.47243.6665.7610.59
17Bosnia Herzegovina280.00177.69182.4957.58−2.63
18Pakistan167.66109.52292.9453.09−62.61
19Mexico110 250.4173 532.1873 568.1249.93−0.05
20Romania32 500.5621 764.5513 358.9649.3362.92
21Greece55 568.2840 425.4138 552.4437.464.86
22Croatia3 634.142 666.411 625.0936.2964.08
23New Zealand9 172.946 816.134 431.2434.5853.82
24Serbia16 580.8512 528.3312 953.7532.35−3.28
25Rep. of Moldova476.99367.92282.4529.6430.26
26Chile6 754.785 226.927 137.2829.23−26.77
27Hungary63 380.0149 553.4050 956.8927.90−2.75
28Indonesia89 424.1970 933.1976 205.8126.07−6.92
29Estonia4 083.983 316.882 870.0223.1315.57
30Latvia1 002.95816.52577.0322.8341.50
31Paraguay5 022.424 113.714 463.1422.09−7.83
32Bulgaria7 112.765 868.944 866.5321.1920.60
33Viet Nam92 890.8876 878.0956 112.8220.8337.01

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of export in year t; xt−1 – value of export in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 2a
Figure Exp. 2a

Dynamics of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

Source: As under the Table Exp. 2a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 3a

Share of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total Export of nonwovens (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share in total world export 2017Share in total world export 2016 (%)Share in total world export 2015 (%)
1China2 626 212.232 555 975.052 486 089.5318.1418.3217.60
2Germany2 057 288.861 897 239.831 903 598.1414.2113.5913.48
3USA1 860 662.691 730 157.521 805 941.4312.8612.4012.79
4Italy1 201 280.541 096 526.961 075 041.218.307.867.61
5Japan686 645.48655 805.09603 624.184.744.704.27
6France483 292.26487 327.85494 561.683.343.493.50
7Turkey478 776.46433 025.44365 189.013.313.102.59
8Belgium409 460.96139 811.18408 573.002.831.002.89
9Czechia381 328.35347 822.54345 145.862.632.492.44
10Netherlands375 552.17343 812.79303 198.432.592.462.15
11Rep. of Korea370 787.09373 003.95401 157.582.562.672.84
12Spain346 144.41312 471.95303 213.732.392.242.15
13Luxembourg303 988.61299 139.03299 817.512.102.142.12
14Israel278 477.00253 914.00265 591.001.921.821.88
15United Kingdom188 471.70177 771.45209 052.911.301.271.48
16Sweden180 377.80163 206.97159 152.521.251.171.13
17Malaysia169 026.34144 301.84147 252.411.171.031.04
18Poland167 682.44160 171.16129 768.661.161.150.92
19Denmark159 970.35153 684.27156 624.051.111.101.11
20China, Hong Kong SAR147 042.15178 735.51185 473.041.021.281.31
21Canada129 420.08115 968.23116 323.340.890.830.82
22India118 710.26112 031.1787 801.440.820.800.62
23Slovenia117 290.13112 644.9698 425.360.810.810.70
24Brazil114 271.1498 696.14138 485.630.790.710.98
25Mexico110 250.4173 532.1873 568.120.760.530.52
26Austria107 392.4899 036.4297 135.980.740.710.69
27Viet Nam92 890.8876 878.0956 112.820.640.550.40
28Egypt91 990.5445 781.2040 486.610.640.330.29
29Indonesia89 424.1970 933.1976 205.810.620.510.54
30Hungary63 380.0149 553.4050 956.890.440.360.36
31Greece55 568.2840 425.4138 552.440.380.290.27
32Belarus51 942.1044 433.6044 911.900.360.320.32
33Russian Federation51 789.5753 799.4043 584.490.360.390.31
34Argentina45 940.5944 160.0857 484.090.320.320.41
35Switzerland43 599.2242 885.6548 306.350.300.310.34
36Finland35 305.7930 241.2426 348.770.240.220.19
37Romania32 500.5621 764.5513 358.960.220.160.09

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 3a
Figure Exp. 3a

Share of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total export of nonwovens (%) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Exp. 3a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp.4a

Exports of nonwovens to the world by the EU(28) exporters, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) a nd its share in total EU28 export – ranking for 2017

No.Country2017Share in total EU28 export 20172016Share in total EU28 export 20162015Share in total EU28 export 2015
1Germany2 057,2930.551 897,2431.581 903,6030.70
2Italy1 201,2817.841 096,5318.251 075,0417.34
3France483,297.18487,338.11494,567.98
4Belgium409,466.08139,812.33408,576.59
5Czechia381,335.66347,825.79345,155.57
6Netherlands375,555.58343,815.72303,204.89
7Spain346,145.14312,475.20303,214.89
8Luxembourg303,994.51299,144.98299,824.84
9United Kingdom188,472.80177,772.96209,053.37
10Sweden180,382.68163,212.72159,152.57
11Poland167,682.49160,172.67129,772.09
12Denmark159,972.38153,682.56156,622.53
13Slovenia117,291.74112,641.8898,431.59
14Austria107,391.5999,041.6597,141.57
15Hungary63,380.9449,550.8250,960.82
16Greece55,570.8340,430.6738,550.62
17Finland35,310.5230,240.5026,350.42
18Romania32,500.4821,760.3613,360.22
19Slovakia22,780.3421,130.3517,340.28
20Lithuania15,700.2313,420.2212,020.19
21Ireland9,060.1322,390.3743,650.70
22Bulgaria7,110.115,870.104,870.08
23Portugal4,090.064,480.075,260.08
24Estonia4,080.063,320.062,870.05
25Croatia3,630.052,670.041,630.03
26Latvia1,00.01,820.010,580.01
27Cyprus,020.00,00.000,030.00
28Malta,00.00,420.010,090.00
TOTAL EU-28 EXPORT6 733,76100.006 007.16100.006 200.86100.00

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure 4a
Figure 4a

Export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Exp. 4.a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 5a

Dynamics of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD, %) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016 (%)Dynamics 2016–2015 (%)
1Belgium409,46139,81408,57192,87−65.78
2Romania32,5021,7613,3649,3362.92
3Greece55,5740,4338,5537,464.86
4Croatia3,632,671,6336,2964.08
5Hungary63,3849,5550,9627,90−2.75
6Estonia4,083,322,8723,1315.57
7Latvia1,000,820,5822,8341.50
8Bulgaria7,115,874,8721,1920.60
9Lithuania15,7013,4212,0216,9811.66
10Finland35,3130,2426,3516,7514.77
11Spain346,14312,47303,2110,783.05
12Sweden180,38163,21159,1510,522.55
13Czechia381,33347,82345,159,630.78
14Italy1 201,281 096,531 075,049,552.00
15Netherlands375,55343,81303,209,2313.40
16Austria107,3999,0497,148,441.96
17Germany2 057,291 897,241 903,608,44−0.33
18Slovakia22,7821,1317,347,8421.83
19United Kingdom188,47177,77209,056,02−14.96
20Poland167,68160,17129,774,6923.43
21Slovenia117,29112,6498,434,1214.45
22Denmark159,97153,68156,624,09−1.88
23Luxembourg303,99299,14299,821,62−0.23
24France483,29487,33494,56−0,83−1.46
25Portugal4,094,485,26−8,77−14.90
26Ireland9,0622,3943,65−59,55−48.71
27Cyprus0,02:0,03::
28Malta:0,420,09:349.79
TOTAL EU-28 EXPORT6 733,766 007,166 200,8612,10−3.12

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of export in year t; xt−1 – value of export in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 5a
Figure Exp. 5a

Dynamics of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

Source: As under the Table Exp 5.a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 6a

Share of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world and EU28 export of nonwovens (million USD, %) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share in total world export 2017 (%)Share in total world export 2016 (%)Share in total world export 2015 (%)
1Germany2 057,291 897,241 903,6014.2113.5913.48
2Italy1 201,281 096,531 075,048.307.867.61
3France483,29487,33494,563.343.493.50
4Belgium409,46139,81408,572.831.002.89
5Czechia381,33347,82345,152.632.492.44
6Netherlands375,55343,81303,202.592.462.15
7Spain346,14312,47303,212.392.242.15
8Luxembourg303,99299,14299,822.102.142.12
9United Kingdom188,47177,77209,051.301.271.48
10Sweden180,38163,21159,151.251.171.13
11Poland167,68160,17129,771.161.150.92
12Denmark159,97153,68156,621.111.101.11
13Slovenia117,29112,6498,430.810.810.70
14Austria107,3999,0497,140.740.710.69
15Hungary63,3849,5550,960.440.360.36
16Greece55,5740,4338,550.380.290.27
17Finland35,3130,2426,350.240.220.19
18Romania32,5021,7613,360.220.160.09
19Slovakia22,7821,1317,340.160.150.12
20Lithuania15,7013,4212,020.110.100.09
21Ireland9,0622,3943,650.060.160.31
22Bulgaria7,115,874,870.050.040.03
23Portugal4,094,485,260.030.030.04
24Estonia4,083,322,870.030.020.02
25Croatia3,632,671,630.030.020.01
26Latvia1,000,820,580.010.010.00
27Cyprus0,02:0,030.00:0.00
28Malta:0,420,09:0.000.00
TOTAL EU-28 EXPORT6 733,766 007,166 200,8646.5230.5543.90

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Poland bolded

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 6a
Figure Exp. 6a

Share of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world export of nonwovens (million USD, %) – ranking for 2017

As under the Table Exp. 6.a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 7a

Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015
1Germany20 267.3314 996.5914 081.13
2USA16 706.7718 724.5016 376.59
3Ukraine12 025.289 316.138 509.99
4United Kingdom11 448.659 481.396 393.91
5Italy11 265.2318 109.636 935.30
6Russian Federation8 747.979 612.0010 005.94
7Czechia8 647.928 204.896 464.69
8Slovakia8 280.616 553.525 694.61
9France6 710.877 527.395 360.98
10Romania6 480.685 244.904 860.35
11Netherlands5 720.175 080.694 771.08
12Lithuania5 519.954 870.513 623.43
13Hungary5 062.104 774.403 677.36
14Greece4 388.76244.76193.59
15Austria4 023.535 170.258 010.92
16Denmark3 803.183 229.58843.99
17Turkey2 779.711 835.861 374.74
18Belarus2 158.032 418.522 680.14
19Croatia2 086.132 015.551 653.55
20Mexico2 057.033 601.517.43
21Switzerland2 031.101 838.231 640.59
22Sweden2 015.232 056.903 503.27
23Belgium1 757.951 480.991 026.71
24Slovenia1 304.59577.03434.24
25Finland1 208.441 389.731 429.39
26Ireland1 193.031 533.751 568.97
27Bulgaria1 166.86937.84651.44
28Estonia1 130.511 451.45959.30
29Spain1 110.981 340.42970.77
30Portugal1 083.46638.29901.58
31Serbia1 029.591 248.681 016.39
Total163 211.63155 505.88125 622.36

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 7a
Figure Exp. 7a

Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table Exp. 8a

Dynamics of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

No.Country201720162015Dynamics 2017–2016Dynamics 2016–2015
1Greece4 388.76244.76193.591693.0726.43
2Algeria0.190.010.011323.0830.00
3New Zealand142.3610.472.121259.42394.43
4Uruguay107.6319.74:445.18:
5Georgia93.5735.7975.29161.48−52.47
6Albania46.0218.520.54148.423336.73
7Slovenia1 304.59577.03434.24126.0932.88
8Singapore2.261.092.11106.86−48.30
9Kyrgyzstan2.901.452.8099.66−48.27
10Kazakhstan92.9050.44151.6084.20−66.73
11Portugal1 083.46638.29901.5869.74−29.20
12Montenegro89.7552.9270.0969.58−24.49
13Rep. of Moldova447.29271.94683.5564.48−60.22
14Norway175.91109.3383.0460.8931.66
15Turkey2 779.711 835.861 374.7451.4133.54
16Germany20 267.3314 996.5914 081.1335.156.50
17Israel67.5950.729.8333.27416.15
18India407.62309.61116.6931.66165.33
19Ukraine12 025.289 316.138 509.9929.089.47
20Slovakia8 280.616 553.525 694.6126.3515.08
21Bulgaria1 166.86937.84651.4424.4243.97
22Romania6 480.685 244.904 860.3523.567.91
23United Kingdom11 448.659 481.396 393.9120.7548.29
24Belgium1 757.951 480.991 026.7118.7044.25
25Denmark3 803.183 229.58843.9917.76282.66
26Lithuania5 519.954 870.513 623.4313.3334.42
27Netherlands5 720.175 080.694 771.0812.596.49
28Switzerland2 031.101 838.231 640.5910.4912.05

Notes: n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Dynamics was calculated as follows: (xt–xt−1)/xt−1, where xt – value of export in year t; xt−1 – value of export in year t−1

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 8a
Figure Exp. 8a

Dynamics of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

Source: As under the Table Exp. 8a.

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

Table E 9a

Share of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world Export of nonwovens from Poland (thousand USD, %) – ranking for 2017

No.Country201720162015Share in total world export from Poland 2017 (%)Share in total world export from Poland 2016 (%)Share in total world export from Poland 2015 (%)
1Germany20 267.3314 996.5914 081.1312.099.3610.85
2USA16 706.7718 724.5016 376.599.9611.6912.62
3Ukraine12 025.289 316.138 509.997.175.826.56
4United Kingdom11 448.659 481.396 393.916.835.924.93
5Italy11 265.2318 109.636 935.306.7211.315.34
6Russian Federation8 747.979 612.0010 005.945.226.007.71
7Czechia8 647.928 204.896 464.695.165.124.98
8Slovakia8 280.616 553.525 694.614.944.094.39
9France6 710.877 527.395 360.984.004.704.13
10Romania6 480.685 244.904 860.353.863.273.75
11Netherlands5 720.175 080.694 771.083.413.173.68
12Lithuania5 519.954 870.513 623.433.293.042.79
13Hungary5 062.104 774.403 677.363.022.982.83
14Greece4 388.76244.76193.592.620.150.15
15Austria4 023.535 170.258 010.922.403.236.17
16Denmark3 803.183 229.58843.992.272.020.65
17Turkey2 779.711 835.861 374.741.661.151.06
18Belarus2 158.032 418.522 680.141.291.512.07
19Croatia2 086.132 015.551 653.551.241.261.27
20Mexico2 057.033 601.517.431.232.250.01
21Switzerland2 031.101 838.231 640.591.211.151.26
22Sweden2 015.232 056.903 503.271.201.282.70
23Belgium1 757.951 480.991 026.711.050.920.79
24Slovenia1 304.59577.03434.240.780.360.33
25Finland1 208.441 389.731 429.390.720.871.10
26Ireland1 193.031 533.751 568.970.710.961.21
27Bulgaria1 166.86937.84651.440.700.590.50
28Estonia1 130.511 451.45959.300.670.910.74
29Spain1 110.981 340.42970.770.660.840.75
30Portugal1 083.46638.29901.580.650.400.69
31Serbia1 029.591 248.681 016.390.610.780.78
32Latvia824.63948.39869.370.490.590.67

Notes:

n.e.s. – not elsewhere specified

: data not available

Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

Figure Exp. 9a
Figure Exp. 9a

Share of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world Export of nonwovens from Poland (%) – ranking for 2017

Source: As under the Table Exp. 9a

Citation: Autex Research Journal 2020; 10.2478/aut-2020-0028

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    Freedonia. (2019). ‘Poland: A rising nonwovens market’ report by Freedonia Group USA. Web site: https://www.freedoniagroup.com/Content/Poland-A-Rising-Nonwovens-Market. Data obtained on 11.10.2019.

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    Lentex. Web site: www.lentex.pl. Information obtained on 12.10.2019.

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    Nonwoven Geotextiles Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Application (Road Construction, Erosion Prevention, Drainage), By Material, By Region (EMEA, APAC), and Segment Forecasts, 2019 – 2025. Web site: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nonwoven-geotextiles-market. Information obtained on 11.11.2019.

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    Comtrade. Web site: https://comtrade.un.org/. Data obtained in June–October 2019.

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    Chinese market size for nonwoven geotextiles made from different materials and estimates for the future. Source: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/nonwoven-geotextiles-market, date of access 11.11.2019 [14].

  • View in gallery

    Import of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source as: in the Table Imp. 1.a.

  • View in gallery

    Shares of main importers in world import of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Imp. 2a.

  • View in gallery

    Import of non-wovens by EU (28) countries, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source: See Table Imp 4a.

  • View in gallery

    Imports dynamics of import of non-wovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

    Source: see Table Imp 2a.

  • View in gallery

    Shares of imports of nonwovens, in world total imports of nonwovens(%) whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. – ranking for 2017

    Source: See Table Imp. 6a.

  • View in gallery

    Imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Imp. 7a.

  • View in gallery

    Dynamics of import to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

    Source: As under the Table Imp. 8a.

  • View in gallery

    Shares of main partners in imports to Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world import of nonwovens to Poland (%) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Imp. 9a.

  • View in gallery

    Exports of nonwovens by major world exporters, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Exp.1a.

  • View in gallery

    Dynamics of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

    Source: As under the Table Exp. 2a.

  • View in gallery

    Share of exports of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total export of nonwovens (%) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Exp. 3a.

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    Export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (million USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Exp. 4.a.

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    Dynamics of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

    Source: As under the Table Exp 5.a.

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    Share of export of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world export of nonwovens (million USD, %) – ranking for 2017

    As under the Table Exp. 6.a.

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    Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (thousand USD) – ranking for 2017

    Source: Own elaboration based on: Comtrade Database, SITC rev. 4; https://comtrade.un.org/data/; date of access: 2019.04.12

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    Dynamics of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. (%) – ranking for 2017 vs. 2016

    Source: As under the Table Exp. 8a.

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    Share of Export from Poland of nonwovens, whether/not impregnated, coated, covered/laminated, n.e.s. in total world Export of nonwovens from Poland (%) – ranking for 2017

    Source: As under the Table Exp. 9a