The research was focused on the heating capacity of developed, isolated from water penetration, knitted textile heating element with incorporated conductive silver (Ag)- plated yarns, which can be used in manufacturing heating textile products intended for recreation, sports, or health care for elderly. The aim of the investigation was to obtain an appropriate temperature on a human skin, generated by the textile heating element surface at a lower voltage depending on a variety of wearing conditions indoor. Depending on the supplied voltage to the heating element, an incoming electric energy can be converted into different heat. Therefore, the electrical and achieved temperature parameters of heating elements are very important by selecting and adapting required power source devices and by setting the logical parameters of programmable controllers. The heating–cooling dynamic process of developed textile heating element was investigated at different simulated wearing conditions on a standard sweating hot plate and on a human skin at applied voltages of 3V and 5V. It was discovered that a voltage of 5 V is too big for textile heating elements, because the reached steady state temperature increases to approximately 39–40°C, which is too hot for contact with the human skin. The voltage of 3 V is the most suitable to work properly and continuously, i.e., to switch on when the adjusted temperature is too low and to turn off when the necessary temperature is reached. Based on the values of reached steady-state heating temperature, the influence of the applied voltage, ambient air flow velocity, and heating efficiency, depending on various layering of clothes, was determined. Recorded temperatures on the external surface of the heating element provided the possibility to assess its heat loss outgoing into the environment. It was suggested that heat loss can be reduced by increasing thermal insulation properties of the outer layer of the heating element or using layered clothing. On the basis of the resulted heating characteristics, recommended parameters of power source necessary for wearable textile heating element were defined.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 CEN/TR 16298: 2011. Textiles and textile products – Smart textiles – Definitions, categorization, application and standardization needs.
 Stoppa, M., Chiolerio, A. (2014). Wearable electronics and smart textiles: a critical review. Sensors, 14(7), 11957-11992.
 De Mey, G., Özçelik, M., Schwarz, A., Kazani, I., Hertleer, C., et al. (2014). Designing of conductive yarn knitted thermal comfortable shirt using battery operated heating system. Journal of Textile and Apparel/Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 24(1), 26-29.
 Strazdienė, E., Dobilaitė, V. (2007). Techninės Tekstilės gaminiai ir protingoji apranga. Šiauliai: VŠĮ Šiaulių universiteto leidykla, Lithuania, p. 168, DOI: 10.5755/e01.9786090204634.
 Vargas, S. C. (2009). Smart Clothes - Textilien mit Elektronik. Was bietet der Markt der Intelligenten Bekleidung? Hamburg Diplomica® Verlag GmbH, p. 314, ISBN: 978-3-8366-7230-6.
 Šahta, I., Baltina, I., Truskovska, N., Blums, J., Deksnis, E. (2014). High performance and optimum design of structures and materials. 137, 91-102, DOI: 10.2495/HPSM140091.
 Hamdani, S. T. A., Potluri, P., Fernando, A. (2013). Thermo-mechanical behavior of textile heating fabric based on silver coated polymeric yarn. Materials, 6(3), 1072-1089.
 Locher, I. (2006). Technologies for system-on-textile integration, Doctoral thesis, ETH No. 16467, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology: Zürich, p. 121, DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005135763.
 Ding, J. T. F., Tao, X., Au, W. M., Li, L. (2014). Temperature effect on the conductivity of knitted fabrics embedded with conducting yarns. Textile Research Journal, 84(17), 1849-1857.
 Roell, F. (1996). U.S. Patent No. 5,484,983. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (Washington, DC).
 Lee Sandbach, D., Burkitt, J., Walkington, S. M., Crispin, P. G. (2008). Knitted sensor. United States Patent Application Publication–2008.-Nr US, 7377133.
 Petcu, I., Agrawal, P., Curteza, A., Visser, R., Brinks, G. et al. (2012). In 12th AUTEX World Textile Conference, Faculty of Textile Technology of the University of Zagreb.
 Poboroniuc, M. S., Curteza, A., Cretu, V., Macovei, L. (2014). Designing wearable textile structures with embeded conductive yarns and testing their heating properties. In: International Conference and Exposition on Electrical and Power Engineering (EPE), p. 778. DOI: 10.1109/ICEPE.2014.6970016.
 Mečnika, V., Hoerr, M., Krivinš, I., Schwarz, A. (2014). In rural environment. Education. Personality (REEP) Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference (Latvia). Latvia University of Agriculture.
 Kayacan, O., Bulgun, E. Y. (2009). Heating behaviors of metallic textile structures. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 21(2/3), 127-136.
 Ohgushi, K., Hijiri, M., Kitazawa, Z. (1991). U.S. Patent No. 4,983,814. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (Washington, DC).
 Tao, X. (2004). Wearable electronics and photonics. Woodhead Publishing, p. 256. ISBN 978-1-85573-605-4.
 Bai, Y., Li, H., Gan, S., Li, Y., Liu, H., Chen, L. (2018). Flexible heating fabrics with temperature perception based on fine copper wire and fusible interlining fabrics. Measurement, 122, p. 192-200.
 Pan, N., Gibson, P. (Eds.). (2006). Thermal and moisture transport in fibrous materials. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles No. 56 (Cambridge, England). p. 632, ISBN: 9781845690571.
 Wiezlak, W., Zielinski, J. (1993). Clothing heated with textile heating elements. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 5(5), 9.
 Woods, K., Bishop, P., Jones, E. (2007). Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Medicine, 37(12), 1089-1099.
 McCann, J. (2013). Smart protective textiles for older people. In Book smart textiles for protection. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles Woodhead Publishing Limited, pp. 253-273.
 Palamutcu, S., Goren, I. (2015). Functional textile preferences of elderly people. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 6(2S5), 279-285.
 EN ISO 11092: 2014. Measurement of thermal and water-vapour resistance under steady-state conditions (sweating guarded-hot plate test).
 Varnaitė-Žuravliova, S., Baltušnikaitė-Guzaitienė, J., Valasevičiūtė, L., Verbienė, R., Abraitienė, A. (2016). Assessment of electrical characteristics of conductive woven fabrics. American Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 1(3), 38-49.