Chemical Hand Warmers in Protective Gloves: Design and Usage

Open access


Heated gloves have been gaining popularity due to increasing work safety demands. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the presence of chemical hand warmers in protective gloves. The study involved three types of gloves appropriate for work activities performed in cold environments. Several hand warmer variants were designed, differing in terms of shape and location within the glove, which are of great relevance to the comfort of use. Manual dexterity tests were designed to approximate real conditions of the work environment, allow for simulation of occupational activities, and involve various aspects of manipulation.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Smith J. C. Machado-Moreira C. A. Plant G. Hodder S. Havenith G. et al. (2013). Design data for footwear: sweating distribution on the human foot. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology 25(1) 43-58.

  • [2] Bertaux E. Derler S. Rossi R. M. Zeng X. Koehl L. et al. (2010). Textile physiological and sensorial parameters in sock comfort. Textile Research Journal 80(17) 1803-1810.

  • [3] Garner J. C. Wade C. Garten R. Chander H. Acevedo E. (2013). The influence of firefighter boot type on balance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 43(1) 77-81.

  • [4] Geng Q. Chen F. Holmer I. (1997). The effect of protective gloves on manual dexterity in the cold environments. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 3(1-2) 15-29.

  • [5] Holmer I. (1993). Work in the cold. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 65 147-155.

  • [6] Koradecka D. (Ed.) (1997). Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ergonomia. CIOP (Warsaw Poland).

  • [7] Chen F. Nilsson H. Holmér I. (1994). Finger cooling by contact with cold aluminium surfaces – effects of pressure mass and whole body thermal balance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 69(1) 55-60.

  • [8] Geng Q. Holmer I. (2001). Change in contact temperature of finger touching on cold surfaces. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 27(6) 387-391.

  • [9] Kuklane K. (2009). Protection of feet in cold exposure. Industrial Health 47(3) 242-253.

  • [10] Kuklane K. Geng Q. Holmér I. (1999). Thermal effects of steel toe caps in footgear. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 23(5–6) 431-438.

  • [11] Kuklane K. Holmér I. (1998). Effect of sweating on insulation of footwear. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 4(2) 123-136.

  • [12] Gadd P. R. (1996). Heated gloves. US Patent 5541388.

  • [13] Cornwell W. D. (1970). Electrically heated footwear and handwear. US 3621191.

  • [14] Orban R. F. Lewis J. C. (1985). Electrically heated gloves. US 4764665.

  • [15] Moss G. J. Toler M. Rehkemper S. (1989). Heated gloves. US Patent 4950868.

  • [16] Metcalf E. K. (1975). Heated garment. US 3999037.

  • [17] Davis L. K. McCarthy N. J. (1999). Disposable thermal body wrap. US 6336935.

  • [18] Helenick S. M. (1998). Thermal glove. US 6141801.

  • [19] Langer M. (2003). Climate controlled glove for sporting activities. US 2004/0244090A1.

  • [20] Chen Y.-G. Chen J.-K. (2008). Cold/hot pack. US 2010/0016933A1.

  • [21] Raleigh G. Rivard R. Fabus S. (2005). Air activated chemical warming devices: effects of oxygen and pressure. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine Journal 32(6) 445-449.

  • [22] Kauranen K. Vanharanta H. (1997). Effects of hot and cold packs on motor performance of normal hands. Physiotherapy 83(7) 340-344.

  • [23] Okada K. Yamaguchi T. Minowa K. Inoue N. (2005). The influence of hot pack therapy on the blood flow in masseter muscles Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 32 7.

  • [24] Fearon R. E. Foss R. G. (1968). Exothermic composition containing a metal oxide and acid or acid salts US 3475239.

  • [25] Jackman R. Johnson J. (1970). Exothermic composition US 3766079.

  • [26] Krupa C. S. (1975). Heating pack containing a granular chemical composition. US 3980070.

  • [27] Gossett R. L. (1974). Magnesium sulfate anhydrous hot pack having an inner bag provided with a perforated seal. US 4057047.

  • [28] Miyashita E. (1987). Hot compress structure. US 5233981.

  • [29] Cramer R. D. Davies L. K. Ouellette W. R. (1996). Disposable thermal body pad. US 6096067.

  • [30] Davis L. K. Cramer R. D. Ouellette W. R. Kimble D. M. (1996). Thermal pack having a plurality of individual heat cells. US 6146732.

  • [31] Sands W. A. Kimmel W. L. Wurtz B. R. Stone M. H. McNeal J. R. (2009). Comparison of commercially available disposable chemical hand and foot warmers. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 20 33-38.

  • [32] PN-EN 1082-2:2002 Odzież ochronna - Rękawice i ochrony ramion chroniące przed przecięciami i ukłuciami nożami ręcznymi - Część 2: Rękawice i ochrony ramion wykonane z materiałów innych niż plecionka pierścieni.

  • [33] Irzmańska E. Tokarski T. (2017). A new method of ergonomic testing of gloves protecting against cuts and stabs during knife use. Applied Ergonomics 61 102-114.

  • [34] Dorman L. E. Havenith G. (2009). The effects of protective clothing on energy consumption during different activities. European Journal of Applied Physiology 105(3) 463-470.

  • [35] Kempson G. E. Clark R. P. Goff M. R. (1988). The design development and assessment of electrically heated gloves used for protecting cold extremities. Ergonomics 31(7) 1083-1091.

  • [36] Haisman M. F. (1988). Physiological aspects of electrically heated garments. Ergonomics 31(7) 1049-1063.

  • [37] Brajkovic D. Ducharme M. B. Frim J. (1998). Influence of localized auxiliary heating on hand comfort during cold exposure. Journal of Applied Physiology 85(6) 2054-2065.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.927
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.016

CiteScore 2018: 1.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.395
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.044

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 25 25 25
PDF Downloads 31 31 31