Evolution of Physicochemical Structure of Waste Cotton Fiber (Hydrochar) During Hydrothermal Carbonation

Shi Sheng 1 , Zhang Meiling 1 , Zhang Suying 1 , Hou Wensheng 1  and Yan Zhifeng 1
  • 1 College of Textile Engineering, 030600, Jinzhong, China


To study the hydrothermal behavior of cotton fiber, the carbonization process and structural evolution of discarded or waste cotton fiber (WCF) under hydrothermal conditions were investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and glucose was used as a model compound. Results showed that high temperature was beneficial for the hydrolysis of discarded cotton fiber, and the yield of sugar was 4.5%, which was lower than that of MCC (6.51%). WCF and MCC were carbonized at 240–~260°C and 220–~240°C, respectively, whereas the carbonization temperature of glucose was lower than 220°C. The C/O ratios of WCF and glucose hydrothermal products were 5.79 and 5.85, respectively. The three kinds of hydrothermal carbonization products had similar crystal structures and oxygen-containing functional groups. The carbonized products of WCF contained many irregular particles, while the main products of glucose carbonization were 0.5-mm-sized carbon microspheres (CMSs). Results showed that glucose was an important intermediate in WCF carbonization and that there were two main pathways of hydrothermal carbonization of cotton fibers: some cotton fibers were completely hydrolyzed into glucose accompanied by nucleation and then the growth of CMSs. For the other part, the glucose ring of the oligosaccharide, formed by the incomplete hydrolysis of cotton fibers under hydrothermal conditions of high temperature and pressure, breaks and then forms particulate matter.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Khajenoori, M., Haghighi Asl, A., Hormozi, F. (2009). Proposed models for subcritical water extraction of essential oils. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 17, 359-365.

  • [2] Yu, F., Rui-Juan, S., Na, Y., et al. (2007). Separation of some alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids by coupling of subcritical water chromatography and flame ionization detection with post-column splitting. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 35,1335-1338.

  • [3] Sevilla, M., Fuertes, A. B. (2009). Chemical and structural properties of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides. Chemistry-A European Journal, 15, 4195-4203.

  • [4] Ryu, J., Suh, Y. W., Suh, D. J. (2010). Hydrothermal preparation of carbon microspheres from mono-saccharides and phenolic compounds. Carbon, 48, 1990-1998.

  • [5] Li, S., Wang, E., Tian, C., Mao, B., Kang, Z., et al. (2008). Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 181, 1650-1658.

  • [6] Shi, F., Ma, Y., Ma, J., Wang, P., Sun, W. (2013). Preparation and characterization of PVDF/TiO2 hybrid membranes with ionic liquid modified nano-TiO2 particles. Journal of Membrane Science, 427, 259-269.

  • [7] Muhaimin, Sudiono, S. (2017). Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1823, 1-6.

  • [8] Laginhas, C., Nabais, J. M. V., Titirici, M. M. (2016). Activated carbons with high nitrogen content by a combination of hydrothermal carbonization with activation. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 226, 125-132.

  • [9] Kobayashi, I., Terazima, M., Kimura, Y. (2012). Study of the excited-state proton-transfer reaction of 5-cyano-2-naphthol in sub- and supercritical water. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 116, 1043-1052.

  • [10] Liang, X., Montoya, A., Haynes, B. S. (2017). Mechanistic insights and kinetic modeling of cellobiose decomposition in hot compressed water. Energy and Fuels, 31, 2203-2216.

  • [11] Koch, K., Ensikat, H. J. (2008). The hydrophobic coatings of plant surfaces: Epicuticular wax crystals and their morphologies, crystallinity and molecular self-assembly. Micron, 39, 759-772.

  • [12] Koch, K., Bhushan, B., Barthlott, W. (2009). Multifunctional surface structures of plants: An inspiration for biomimetics. Progress In Materials Science, 54, 137-178.

  • [13] Li, M., Huang, K., Schott, J., Wu, Z., Dai, S. (2017). Effect of metal oxides modification on CO2 adsorption performance over mesoporous carbon. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 249, 34-41.

  • [14] Qi, X., Lian, Y., Yan, L., Smith, R. L. (2014). One-step preparation of carbonaceous solid acid catalysts by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose for cellulose hydrolysis. Catalysis Communications, 57, 50-54.

  • [15] Gao, Y., Yu, B., Wu, K., Yuan, Q., Wang, X., Chen, H. (2016). Physicochemical, pyrolytic, and combustion characteristics of hydrochar obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of biomass. BioResources, 11, 4113-4133.

  • [16] Wu, D., Fu, R., Yu, Z. J. (2005). Organic and carbon aerogels from the NaOH-catalyzed polycondensation of resorcinol-furfural and supercritical drying in ethanol. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 96, 1429-1435.

  • [17] Mohamed, T. A., Farag, R. S. (2005). Raman spectrum, conformational stability, barriers to internal rotations and DFT calculations of 1,1,1-trifluoro-propane-2-thione with double-internal-symmetric rotor. Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 62, 800-807.

  • [18] Zhao, J., Niu, W., Zhang, L., Cai, H., Han, M., et al. (2013). A template-free and surfactant-free method for high-yield synthesis of highly monodisperse 3-aminophenol-formaldehyde resin and carbon nano/microspheres. Macromolecules, 46, 140-145.

  • [19] Wu, Q., Yu, S., Hao, N., Wells, Jr. T., Meng, X., et al. (2017). Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of pine. Bioresource Technology, 244, 78-83.

  • [20] Ho, K. S., Lui, K. O., Lee, K. H., Chan, W. T. (2013). Considerations of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion in single-particle inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta – Part B At Spectroscopy, 89, 30-39.

  • [21] Ogihara, Y., Smith, R. L., Inomata, H., Arai, K. (2005). Direct observation of cellulose dissolution in subcritical and supercritical water over a wide range of water densities (550-1000 kg/m3). Cellulose, 12, 595-606.

  • [22] Baccile, N., Laurent, G., Babonneau, F., Fayon, F., Titirici, M. M., et al. (2009). Structural characterization of hydrothermal carbon spheres by advanced solid-state MAS C-13 NMR investigations. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009, 113, 9644-9654.

  • [23] Matveeva, V. G., Sulman, E. M., Manaenkov, O. V., Filatova, A. E., Kislitza, O. V., et al. (2017). Hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose in subcritical water with the use of the Ru-containing polymeric catalysts. Catalysis Today, 280, 45-50.

  • [24] Hansen, M. A. T., Ahl, L. I., Pedersen, H. L., Westereng, B., Willats, W. G. T., et al. (2014). Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw. Industrial Crops and Products, 55, 63-69.

  • [25] Aida, T. M., Sato, Y., Watanabe, M., Tajima, K., Nonaka, T., et al. (2007). Dehydration of D-glucose in high temperature water at pressures up to 80 MPa. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 40, 381-388.

  • [26] Asghari, F. S., Yoshida, H. (2006), Acid-catalyzed production of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural from D-fructose in subcritical water. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2006, 45, 2163-2173.


Journal + Issues