Physical Mechanical Properties of Medical Socks Proposed for Diabetic Foot Syndrome Sampled from the Market

Open access

Abstract

Diabetic disease and its chronic complications is a public health problem that affects millions of people all over the world. Feet diabetics need private care by using appropriate shoes and socks, to avoid friction, sweating and high temperature. Diabetic socks have to attain an effective thermal comfort and higher appraisal performance. To achieve these conditions, the diabetic socks have to attain comfortable fit, no pressure points or seams on fingers, suitable size, classified as spring-summer or autumn-winter and also to avoid high temperature. The specifications of the diabetic socks sold in the market consist of its material combination, size and chemical treatments. No definite physical mechanical properties of diabetic socks are proposed. Diabetic socks taken from the market, with appropriate price, were evaluated for both thermal and non-thermal properties. The tested samples demonstrate a great variability’s in the fabric construction and properties. By analyzing the tested socks, the proposed values concerning the properties of diabetic socks for summer and winter are introduced. Moreover, relative geometrical mean of thermal comfort properties was proposed for determining a global measure of diabetic sock properties.

Abstract

Diabetic disease and its chronic complications is a public health problem that affects millions of people all over the world. Feet diabetics need private care by using appropriate shoes and socks, to avoid friction, sweating and high temperature. Diabetic socks have to attain an effective thermal comfort and higher appraisal performance. To achieve these conditions, the diabetic socks have to attain comfortable fit, no pressure points or seams on fingers, suitable size, classified as spring-summer or autumn-winter and also to avoid high temperature. The specifications of the diabetic socks sold in the market consist of its material combination, size and chemical treatments. No definite physical mechanical properties of diabetic socks are proposed. Diabetic socks taken from the market, with appropriate price, were evaluated for both thermal and non-thermal properties. The tested samples demonstrate a great variability’s in the fabric construction and properties. By analyzing the tested socks, the proposed values concerning the properties of diabetic socks for summer and winter are introduced. Moreover, relative geometrical mean of thermal comfort properties was proposed for determining a global measure of diabetic sock properties.

References

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  • [2] Afzal, A., Hussain, T., Mohsin, M., Rasheed, A., Ahmad, S. (2014). Statistical models for predicting the thermal resistance of polyester/cotton blended interlock knitted fabrics. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 85, 40-46.

  • [3] Altas, S., Ozgen, B. (2013). Investigation of Fabric Properties Woven with Different Fibres. Tekstilec, 56(2), 117-122

  • [4] Anita Tarbuk, Ana Marija Grancaric, Sasa Magas, (2015) “Modified Cotton Socks- Possibility to Protect from Diabetic Foot Infection” Coll Antropol. Google Scholar, Medline, 39(1), 177-183.

  • [5] Çeken, F. and Kayacan, Ö. (2006). “An Investigation on the Production Techniques and Elasticity Properties of Knitted Bandages”, Tekstil Maraton, (2), 60-68.

  • [6] Cimilli, S., Nergis, B. U., Candan, C., Özdemir, M. (2010). A comparative study of some comfort-related properties of socks of different fiber types. Textile Research Journal, 80(10), 948-957.

  • [7] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiūtė, J. (2010). Investigation of the air permeability of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(1), 84-88.

  • [8] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiute, J., Kerpauskas, P. (2010). ‘Investigation of the thermal properties of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Part I. Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Socks Knitted from Natural and Synthetic Textured Yarns’ Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(3) 89-93.

  • [9] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiute, J., Kerpauskas, P. (2011). Investigation of the thermal properties of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Part II: thermal resistance of socks knitted from natural and stretch yarns. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 19(3), 64-68.

  • [10] Erdumlu, N., Ozipek, B. (2008). Investigation of regenerated bamboo fibre and yarn characteristics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 16(4), 43-47

  • [11] Frydrych, I., Dziworska, G., Bilska, J. (2002). Comparativeanalysis of the thermal insulation properties of fabrics made of natural and man-made cellulose fibres. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 10(4), 40-44.

  • [12] Gun, A. D., Alan, G., Macit, A. S. (2016). Thermal properties of socks made from reclaimed fibre. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 107(9), 1112-1121.

  • [13] Kawabata, S., Rengasamy, R. S. (2002). Thermal conductivity of unidirectional fibre composites made from yarns and computation of thermal conductivity of yarns. Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research, 27(9), 217-223.

  • [14] Khoddami, A., Carr, C. M., Gong, R. H. (2009). Effect of hollow polyester fibres on mechanical properties of knitted wool/polyester fabrics. Fibers and Polymers, 10(4), 452-460.

  • [15] M. J. Abreu, A. Catarino, O. Rebelo. November (2012) “Property Evaluation of Diabetic Socks used to prevent Diabetic Foot Syndrome”. Conference: Fiber Society Fall Conference, At USA.

  • [16] Marmarali, A. R. Z. U., Kadoglu, H. U. S. E. Y. I. N., Oglakcioglu, N., Celik, P., Blaga, M., Ursache, M., Loghin, C. (2009, May). Thermal comfort properties of some new yarns generation knitted fabrics. In AUTEX World Textile Conference (pp. 26-28).

  • [17] Oğlakcioğlu, N., Marmarali, A. (2007). Thermal comfort properties of some knitted structures. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 15(5-6), 64-65.

  • [18] Oğulata, R. T., Mavruz, S. (2010). Investigation of porosity and air permeability values of plain knitted fabrics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(5), 71-75.

  • [19] Özbayrak, N., Kavuşturan, Y. (2009). The Effects of Inlay Yarn Amount and Yarn Count on Extensibility and Bursting Strength of Compression Stockings. Journal of Textile & Apparel/Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 19(2), 102-107.

  • [20] Raja, D., Prakash, C., Gunasekaran, G., Koushik, C. V. (2015). A study on thermal properties of single-jersey knitted fabrics produced from ring and compact folded yarns. The Journal of the Textile Institute, 106(4), 359-365.

  • [21] Ramachandran, T., Manonmani, G., Vigneswaran, C. (2010). Thermal behaviour of ring-and compact-spun yarn single jersey, rib and interlock knitted fabrics. Indian Journal of Fiber 7 Textile Research, 35(9),250-257

  • [22] Rebelo, O., Catarino, A., Abreu, M., Lima, M. (2010). Friction and Compression Evaluation of Socks for Diabetic Patients. 5th International Textile, Clothing & Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, [23] Salman A., Geiheini A., Abdel Megid Z.M., Shawky M., Darwish H.M. (2014). Evaluation of Medical Socks Applied to Varicose Veins Therapy at Egyptian Market. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 4(10), 40-48.

  • [24] Tashkandi, S., Wang, L., Kanesalingam, S. (2013). An investigation of thermal comfort properties of Abaya woven fabrics. Journal of the Textile Institute, 104(8), 830-837.

  • [25] Tiwari, M. (2010). Thermal Comfort of Textile Materials and Its Assessment‖. Textile Review, Sept

  • [26] Xing, T. L., Liu, J., Li, S. W., Chen, G. Q. (2012). Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate. Thermal Science, 16(5), 1472-1475.

  • [27] Yi-you, L. (2004). The Soybean Protein Fibre-A Healthy & Comfortable Fibre for the 21st Century. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 12(2), 8-9.

[1] Afzal, A., Ahmad, S., Rasheed, A., Mohsin, M., Ahmad, F., Nawab, Y. (2015). Characterization and statistical modelling of thermal resistance of cotton/polyester blended double layer interlock knitted fabrics. Thermal Science, (00), 201-201.

[2] Afzal, A., Hussain, T., Mohsin, M., Rasheed, A., Ahmad, S. (2014). Statistical models for predicting the thermal resistance of polyester/cotton blended interlock knitted fabrics. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 85, 40-46.

[3] Altas, S., Ozgen, B. (2013). Investigation of Fabric Properties Woven with Different Fibres. Tekstilec, 56(2), 117-122

[4] Anita Tarbuk, Ana Marija Grancaric, Sasa Magas, (2015) “Modified Cotton Socks- Possibility to Protect from Diabetic Foot Infection” Coll Antropol. Google Scholar, Medline, 39(1), 177-183.

[5] Çeken, F. and Kayacan, Ö. (2006). “An Investigation on the Production Techniques and Elasticity Properties of Knitted Bandages”, Tekstil Maraton, (2), 60-68.

[6] Cimilli, S., Nergis, B. U., Candan, C., Özdemir, M. (2010). A comparative study of some comfort-related properties of socks of different fiber types. Textile Research Journal, 80(10), 948-957.

[7] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiūtė, J. (2010). Investigation of the air permeability of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(1), 84-88.

[8] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiute, J., Kerpauskas, P. (2010). ‘Investigation of the thermal properties of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Part I. Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Socks Knitted from Natural and Synthetic Textured Yarns’ Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(3) 89-93.

[9] Čiukas, R., Abramavičiute, J., Kerpauskas, P. (2011). Investigation of the thermal properties of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties. Part II: thermal resistance of socks knitted from natural and stretch yarns. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 19(3), 64-68.

[10] Erdumlu, N., Ozipek, B. (2008). Investigation of regenerated bamboo fibre and yarn characteristics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 16(4), 43-47

[11] Frydrych, I., Dziworska, G., Bilska, J. (2002). Comparativeanalysis of the thermal insulation properties of fabrics made of natural and man-made cellulose fibres. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 10(4), 40-44.

[12] Gun, A. D., Alan, G., Macit, A. S. (2016). Thermal properties of socks made from reclaimed fibre. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 107(9), 1112-1121.

[13] Kawabata, S., Rengasamy, R. S. (2002). Thermal conductivity of unidirectional fibre composites made from yarns and computation of thermal conductivity of yarns. Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research, 27(9), 217-223.

[14] Khoddami, A., Carr, C. M., Gong, R. H. (2009). Effect of hollow polyester fibres on mechanical properties of knitted wool/polyester fabrics. Fibers and Polymers, 10(4), 452-460.

[15] M. J. Abreu, A. Catarino, O. Rebelo. November (2012) “Property Evaluation of Diabetic Socks used to prevent Diabetic Foot Syndrome”. Conference: Fiber Society Fall Conference, At USA.

[16] Marmarali, A. R. Z. U., Kadoglu, H. U. S. E. Y. I. N., Oglakcioglu, N., Celik, P., Blaga, M., Ursache, M., Loghin, C. (2009, May). Thermal comfort properties of some new yarns generation knitted fabrics. In AUTEX World Textile Conference (pp. 26-28).

[17] Oğlakcioğlu, N., Marmarali, A. (2007). Thermal comfort properties of some knitted structures. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 15(5-6), 64-65.

[18] Oğulata, R. T., Mavruz, S. (2010). Investigation of porosity and air permeability values of plain knitted fabrics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 18(5), 71-75.

[19] Özbayrak, N., Kavuşturan, Y. (2009). The Effects of Inlay Yarn Amount and Yarn Count on Extensibility and Bursting Strength of Compression Stockings. Journal of Textile & Apparel/Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 19(2), 102-107.

[20] Raja, D., Prakash, C., Gunasekaran, G., Koushik, C. V. (2015). A study on thermal properties of single-jersey knitted fabrics produced from ring and compact folded yarns. The Journal of the Textile Institute, 106(4), 359-365.

[21] Ramachandran, T., Manonmani, G., Vigneswaran, C. (2010). Thermal behaviour of ring-and compact-spun yarn single jersey, rib and interlock knitted fabrics. Indian Journal of Fiber 7 Textile Research, 35(9),250-257

[22] Rebelo, O., Catarino, A., Abreu, M., Lima, M. (2010). Friction and Compression Evaluation of Socks for Diabetic Patients. 5th International Textile, Clothing & Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, [23] Salman A., Geiheini A., Abdel Megid Z.M., Shawky M., Darwish H.M. (2014). Evaluation of Medical Socks Applied to Varicose Veins Therapy at Egyptian Market. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 4(10), 40-48.

[24] Tashkandi, S., Wang, L., Kanesalingam, S. (2013). An investigation of thermal comfort properties of Abaya woven fabrics. Journal of the Textile Institute, 104(8), 830-837.

[25] Tiwari, M. (2010). Thermal Comfort of Textile Materials and Its Assessment‖. Textile Review, Sept

[26] Xing, T. L., Liu, J., Li, S. W., Chen, G. Q. (2012). Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate. Thermal Science, 16(5), 1472-1475.

[27] Yi-you, L. (2004). The Soybean Protein Fibre-A Healthy & Comfortable Fibre for the 21st Century. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 12(2), 8-9.

Autex Research Journal

The Journal of Association of Universities for Textiles (AUTEX)

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