Beyond Assimilation and Integration: The Shift to ‘National’ and ‘Transnational’ Inclusion

Open access

Abstract

One of the key concepts of the MIME (Mobility and Inclusion in Multilingual Europe) project is, obviously, ‘inclusion’. However, precisely describing what the concept means is not as straightforward as it may seem. It has been used in different contexts in scientific literature. This paper attempts to contribute to the enfolding MIME-framework by critically reflecting upon the definition of ‘inclusion’. Drawing upon theories of acculturation, three core concepts in minority literature, namely ‘assimilation,’ ‘integration,’ and ‘inclusion’ will be examined, and their differences demarcated. In the light of recent developments, such as transnationalism, it will be determined which concept is best suited to analyse contemporary accommodation processes of minorities in their countries of residence. After examining the trade-off between mobility and inclusion, a central topic in all MIMErelated research, some general conclusions about ‘inclusion’ and diversitymanagement will be drawn.

AREND-STÓTH, J.-VAN DE VIJVER, F. 2003. Multiculturalism and Acculturation: Views of Dutch and Turkish-Dutch. European Journal of Social Psychology 33(2): 249-266.

BASCH, L.-GLICK SCHILLER, N.-SZANTON BLANC, C. 2008. Transnational Projects: A New Perspective and Theoretical Premises. In: Khagram, S.-Levitt, P. (eds), The Transnational Studies Reader: Intersections & Innovations. New York: Routledge, pp. 261-272.

Berry, J. 1980. Acculturation as Varieties of Adaptation. In: Padilla, A. (ed.), Acculturation: Theory Models and Findings. Boulder: Westview, 9-25.

1990. Psychology of Acculturation. In: Berman, J. (ed.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1989: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Current Theory and Research in Motivation. University of Nebraska Press: Nebraska, 201-234.

1997. Immigration, Acculturation and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review 46: 5-34.

2005. Acculturation: Living in Two Successful Cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 29(6): 697-712.

2006. Stress Perspectives on Acculturation. In: Sam, D.-Berry, J. The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 43-57.

BOURHIS, R.-MOÏSE, L.-PERRAULT, S.-SENÉCAL, S. 1997. Towards an Interactive Acculturation Model: A Social Psychological Approach. International Journal of Psychology 32: 369-386.

BURK, J. 1995. Citizenship Status and Military Service: The Quest for Inclusion by Minorities and Conscientious Objectors. Armed Forces & Society 21(4): 503-529.

CASTELLS, M. 2010. The Rise of the Network Society. Wiley-Blackwell: West- Sussex.

GOFORTH, A.-OKA, E.-LEONG, F.-DENIS, D. 2014. Acculturation, Acculturative Stress, Religiosity and Psychological Adjustment among Muslim Arab American Adolescents. Journal of Muslim Mental Health 8(2): 3-19.

GORDON, M. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. Oxford University Press: New York.

GRIN, F.-MARÁCZ, L.-POKORN, N.-KRAUS, P. 2014 ‘Mobility and Inclusion in Multilingual Europe: A Position Paper. Accessed via: http://mime-project.org/resources/MIME-POSITION-PAPER-V4.pdf.

HABERMAS, J. 1994. Struggles for Recognition in the Democratic Constitutional State. Gutmann, A. (ed.), Multiculturalism. Princeton University Press: New Jersey, 107-148.

2008. Notes on Post-Secular Society. New Perspectives Quarterly 25(4): 17-29.

HEHMAN, E.-GAERTNER, S.-DOVIDIO, J.-MANIA, E.-GUERRA, R.-WILSON, D.-FRIEL, B. 2012. Group Status Drives Majority and Minority Integration Preferences. Psychological Science 23(1): 46-52.

HORENCZYK, G. 1996. Migrating Selves in Conflict. In: Breakwell, G.-Lyons, E. (eds), Changing European Identities. Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, 241-250.

HOUTKAMP, C. 2014. Integrating Language in Theories on Long-Distance Movement: Migration vs Mobility & the Concept of Motility. A’dam Multiling 2014 1(1): 16-26.

HUGO, G. 2005. Migrants in Society: Diversity and Cohesion. Global Commission on International Migration.

KOOPMANS, R. 2010. Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(1): 1-26.

KOSIC, A.-MANNETTI, L.-SAM, D. 2005. The Role of Majority Attitudes towards Out-Group in the Perception of the Acculturation Strategies of Immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 29(3): 273-288.

KYMLICKA, W. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, L.-ZAGEFKA, H.-NAVAS, M.-CUADRADO, I. 2014. Explaining Majority Members’ Acculturation Preferences for Minority Members: A Mediation Model. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 38: 36-46.

MARKUS, H.-STEELE, C.-STEELE, D. 2000. Colorblindness as a Barrier to Inclusion: Assimilation and Nonimmigrant Minorities. Daedalus, 233-259.

PEDRINI, S.-BÄCHTIGER, A.-STEENBERGEN, M. 2013. Deliberative Inclusion of Minorities: Patterns of Reciprocity among Linguistic Groups in Switzerland. European Political Science Review 5(03): 483-512.

PORTES, A.-GUARNIZO, L.-LANDHOLDT, P. 1999. Introduction - Pitfalls and Promise of an Emergent Research Field. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(2): 217-238.

POTASH, D. 1973. Mandatory Inclusion of Racial Minorities on Jury Panels. Black L.J. 3: 80.

URRY, J. 2002. Mobility and Proximity. Sociology 36(2): 255-272.

PUTNAM, R. 2007. E pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty- First Century. Scandinavian Political Studies 30(2): 137-174. ROJAS, A.-NAVAS, M.-SAYANS-JIMÉNEZ, P.-CUADRADO, I. 2014.

Acculturation Preference Profiles of Spaniards and Romanian Immigrants: The Role of Prejudice and Public and Private Acculturation Areas. The Journal of Social Psychology 154(4): 339-351.

RUEDIN, D.-D’AMATO, G. 2011. Social Cohesion Challenges in Europe. EU-US Immigration Systems 2011/04, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole (FI): European University Institute.

RYAN, L.-SALES, R.-TILKI, M.-SIARA, B. 2008. Social Networks, Social Support and Social Capital: The Experiences of Recent Polish Migrants in London. Sociology 42(4): 672-690.

SIRIN, S.-RYCE, P.-GUPTA, T.-ROGERS-SIRIN, L. 2013. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation. Developmental Psychology 49(4): 736-748.

TAYLOR, C. 1994. The Politics of Recognition. In: Gutmann, A. (ed.), Multiculturalism, Princeton University Press: New Jersey, 25-73.

TÖNNIES, F. 1974. Community and Association. Taylor & Francis: London.

VAN HOUDT, F.-SUVARIEROL, S.-SCHINKEL, W. 2011. Neoliberal Communitarian Citizenship: Current Trends towards ‘Earned Citizenship’ in the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands. International Sociology 26(3): 408-432.

VAN OUDENHOVEN, J.-PRINS, K.-Buunk, B. 1998. Attitudes of Minority and Majority Members towards Adaptation of Immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology 28: 995-1013.

VERTOVEC, S. 1999. Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(2): 445-462.

WIESBROCK, A. 2011. The Integration of Immigrants in Sweden, a Model for the European Union? International Migration 49(4): 48-66.

WRIGHT, M.-BLOEMRAAD, I. 2012. Is There a Trade-Off between Multiculturalism and Socio-Political Integration? Policy Regimes and Immigrant Incorporation in Comparative Perspective. Perspectives on Politics 10(01): 77-95.

YOON, E.-CHANG, C.-KIM, S.-CLAWSON, A.-CLEARY, S.-HANSEN, M.- GOMES, A. M. 2013. A Meta-Analysis of Acculturation/Enculturation and Mental Health. Journal of Counseling Psychology 60(1): 15.

ZAGEFKA, H.-BINDER, J.-BROWN, R.-KESSLER, T.-MUMMENDEY, A.- FUNKE, F.-MAQUIL, A. 2014. The Relationship between Acculturation Preferences and Prejudice: Longitudinal Evidence from Majority and Minority Groups in Three European Countries. European Journal of Social Psychology 44(6): 578-589.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 130 130 18
PDF Downloads 47 47 5