The prevalence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) does not only differ across industries but also varies significantly according to socio-demographic characteristics. This study examines CWB and socio-demographic characteristics among selected employees in the Nigerian maritime industry. Causal research design was adopted to survey 1,000 employees selected through multistage sampling approach in three selected parastatals (Nigerian Ports Authority, Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency, and Nigerian Shippers Council). The data obtained were analyzed with ANOVA and t-test. Based on the analysis carried out, CWB was found to be significantly related to gender, age, marital status, employee cadre, and income, while employees’ level of educational attainment is not significantly related to CWB. Based on the abovementioned findings, the study concludes that the level of education is not significantly connected to the employees’ propensity towards CWB, while other socio-demographic variables are strongly associated to CWB in the workplace. The study recommends that management should develop a mechanism for identifying and selecting their potential employees as a guide against poor organizational fit of employees and that of the organization. Likewise, effort should be intensified to develop and improve organizational culture that will propel citizenship behavior in the workplace.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aftab H.; Javed A. (2012). The impact of job stress on the counter-productive work behaviour (CWB): a case study from the financial sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4(7): 590–604.
Ambrose M. L.; Seabright M. A.; Schminke M. (2002). Sabotage in the workplace: the role of organisational injustice. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 89: 947−965.
Andersson L. M.; Pearson C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. The Academy of Management Review 24(3): 452–471.
Aquino K.; Galperin B. L.; Bennett R. J. (2004). Social status and aggressiveness as moderator of the relationship between interactional justice and workplace CWB. Journal of Applied Psychology 34(5): 1001–1029.
Bailey K. D. (1994). Method of social research (4th ed.). New York: The Free Press.
Barling J.; Dupre K.; Kelloway E. K. (2009). Predicting workplace violence and aggression. Annual Review of Psychology 60: 671−692.
Baucus M.; Near J. (1991). Can illegal corporate behaviour be predicted? An event history analysis. Academy of Management Journal 34(1): 9–36.
Business News (2016). It is a disgrace that 27 states in Nigeria cannot pay worker’s salary – Buhari. Retrieved on: August 21 2016 from: http://www.givenbiznews.com/It is a disgrace that 27 States in Nigeria cannot pay worker’s salary-Buhari.
Chang K.; Smithikrai C. (2010). Counterproductive behaviour at work: An investigation into reduction strategies. International Journal of Human Resource Management 21(8): 1272–1288.
Cooper D. R.; Schindler P. S. (2003). Business research methods (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Cressey D. (1973). Other people’s money. Montclair: Patterson Smith.
Deloitte Financial Advisory Services. (2008). Financial fraud: does an economic downturn mean an uptick? Deloitte Development LLC. (www.Deloitte.com).
Dineen R. J.; Lewicki E.C. (2006). Tomlinson supervisory guidance and behavioural integrity: relationships with employee citizenship and deviant behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(3): 622–635.
Fatima A.; Atif K.; Saqib A.; Haider A. (2012). A path model examining the relations among organisational injustice counterproductive work behaviour and job satisfaction. International Journal of Innovation Management and Technology 3(6): 697–701.
Fox S.; Spector P. E. (1999). A model of work frustration–aggression. Journal of Organisational Behaviour 20: 915–931.
Gabriel A. A. (n.d.). Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour: an appraisal of OCB in a non-English culture workgroups.
Galperin B. L. (2002). Determinants of deviance in the workplace: an empirical examination in Canada and Mexico (Doctoral dissertation). Concordia University.
Girden E. R. (2001). Evaluating research articles (2nd ed.). London: SAGE.
Greenberg J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: the hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology 75: 561–568.
Henle C. A. (2005). Predicting workplace deviance from the interaction between organisational justice and personality. Journal of Managerial Issues 17(2): 247–263.
Hershcovis M. S.; Turner N.; Barling J.; Arnold K. A.; Dupre K. E.; Inness M.; Sivanathan N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 92: 228–238.
Hiriyappa B. (2008). Organisational Behaviour. India: New Age International PVT Ltd.
Hoel H.; Rayner C.; Cooper C. L. (1999). Workplace bullying. In: Cooper C. L.; Robertson I. T. (eds.) International review of industrial and organisational psychology. Chichester UK: Wiley. 195–230.
Idiakheua E. O.; Obetoh G. I. (2012). Counterproductive work behaviour of Nigerians: an insight into make-up theory. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4(7): 10.
Keashly L. (1998). Emotional abuse in the workplace: Conceptual and empirical issues. Journal of Emotional Abuse 1(1): 85–117.
Keashly L.; Trott V.; MacLean L. M. (1994). Abusive behaviour in the workplace: a preliminary investigation. Violence and Victims 9: 341–357.
Kelloway E. K. (2010). Counterproductive work behaviour as protest. Human Resource Management Review 20: 18–25.
Lasisi O. J.; Okuneye M. Y.; Shodiya O. A. (2014). Antecedents of counter work behavior in public sector organisations: evidence from Nigeria. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 3(9): 58–65.
Lau V. C. S.; Au W. T.; Ho J. M. C. (2002). A qualitative and quantitative review of antecedents of counterproductive behaviour in organisations. Journal of Business and Psychology 18(1): 73–99.
Lawrence T. B.; Robinson S. L. (2007). Ain’t misbehavin: workplace deviance as organisational resistance. Journal of Management 33: 378−394.
LeBlanc M.; Kelloway E. (2002). Predictors and outcomes of workplace violence and aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(3): 444–453.
Malhotra N. K. (1999). Marketing research: an applied orientation (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Mario G. (2012). Counterproductive work behaviours and moral disengagement. Doctorate in Pro-sociality Innovation and Collective Efficacy in Educational and Organisational Contexts. XXIV Course Sapienza Universita Di Roma.
Martinko M. J.; Gundlach M. J.; Douglas S. C. (2002). Toward an integrative theory of counterproductive workplace behaviours. A causal reasoning perspective. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 10: 36–50.
Nagle K. J. (2009). Seaports deliver prosperity. AAPA Seaports Magazine winter. Retrieved on: August 11 2015 from: http://www.aapaports.org/Publications/SeaportsDetail.cfm?itemnumber=13112#seaportsarticle.
Neuman J. H.; Baron R. A. (1997). Aggression in the workplace. In: Giacalone R. A.; Greenberg J. (eds.) Antisocial behaviour in organisations. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
O’Fallon M. J.; Butterfield K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 1996–2003. Journal of Business Ethics 59: 375–413.
Paul-Titus R. (2009). Deviant workplace behaviour in organisations: antecedents influences and remedies. International Business Administration – University of Vienna.
Pearson C. M.; Andersson L. M.; Porath C. L. (2005). Workplace incivility. In: Fox S.; Spector P. E. (eds.) Counterproductive workplace behaviour: Investigations of actors and targets. Washington DC: APA. 177–200.
Pelin K.; Funda E. U. (2013). The effect of organisational study on the employees of manufacturing. The Macrotheme Review 2(4): 144–160.
Penney L. M.; Spector P. E. (2005). Job stress incivility and counterproductive work behaviour (CWB): the moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organisational Behaviour 26: 777–796.
Peterson D. (2002). The relationship between unethical behaviour and the dimensions of the ethical climate questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics 41: 313–326.
Robinson S. L.; Bennett R. J. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviours: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal 38: 555−572.
Robinson S. L.; Greenberg J. (1998). Employees behaving badly: dimensions determinants and dilemmas in the study of workplace deviance. Journal of Organisational Behaviour (1986–1998) 5(6): 1–30.
Sackett P. R. (2002). The structure of counterproductive work behaviours: dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance. International Journal of Selection & Assessment 10(1–2): 01–11.
Sackett P. R.; Berry C. M.; Wiemann S. A.; Laczo R. M. (2006). Citizenship and counterproductive work behaviour: clarifying relationships between the two domains. Human Performance 19: 441–464.
Shamsudin F.; Subramaniam C.; Ibrahim H. (2011). HR practices and deviant behaviour at work: an exploratory study. 2011 International Conference on Business and Economics Research.
Sharizan S.; Abdul Rahman A. R.; Noor A. D. (2013). Relationship between person organization fit psychological contract violation on counterproductive work behaviour. International Journal of Business and Social Science 4(4): 173–183.
Skarlicki D. P.; Folger R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: the roles of distributive procedural and interactional justice. Journal of applied psychology 82: 434–443.
Spector P. E.; Fox S. (2005). A model of counterproductive work behaviour. In: Fox S.; Spector P. E. (eds.) Counterproductive workplace behaviour: investigations of actors and targets. Washington DC: APA. 151–174.
Spector P. E.; Fox S.; Penney L. M.; Bruursema K.; Goh A.; Kessler S. (2006). The dimensionality of counter-productivity: are all counterproductive behaviours created equal? Journal of Vocational Behaviour 68(3): 446–460.
Struwig F. W.; Stead G. B. (2001). Planning designing and reporting research. Cape Town: Pearson.
Uchenna C. O. (2013). Counterproductive work behaviour among employees in emotionally demanding jobs: the roles of perceived organisational support job burnout and age. Nigerian Journal of Applied Behavioural Sciences 1: 105–114.
Vardi Y.; Weitz E. (2004). Misbehaviour in organisations: theory research and management. NJ: London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Vigoda E. (2002). Stress-related aftermaths to workplace politics: the relationships among politics job distress and aggressive behaviour in organisations. Journal of Organisational Behaviour 23(5): 571–589.
Yang J.; Diefendorf J. M. (2009). The relations of daily counterproductive workplace behaviours with emotions situational antecedents and personality moderators: a diary study in Hong Kong. Personnel Psychology 62(2): 259–295.
Zapf D.; Einarsen S. (2005). Mobbing at work: escalated conflicts in organisations. In: Spector P. E.; Fox S. (eds.) Counterproductive work behaviour: investigations of actors and targets. Washington DC US: American Psychological Association. 237−270.