Perceptions of Service Quality: An Empirical Assessment of Modified SERVQUAL Model among Domestic Airline Carriers in Nigeria

Open access

Abstract

Literature is replete with a large number of theories related to service quality measurement and dimensions in an airline context. To date, there is no consensus of opinion on the generic model and of the number of dimensions most appropriate to evaluate service quality in airline industry. This study investigates service quality dimensions in the Nigerian airline industry. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to select 800 respondents among departing air travellers in Lagos State. A structured questionnaire containing 28 items was developed to evaluate the perceived service quality of domestic airlines. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and one-sample t-test. The dimensionality of perceived service quality in Nigeria’s airline industry was explored using exploratory factor analysis. From the analysis carried out, it was established that the modified SERVQUAL model provided a satisfactory level of overall reliability in Nigeria’s airline context, which implies that all the items were cohesive in forming the SERVQUAL dimensions. According to the findings of this study, all service quality dimensions are positively and significantly interrelated. The perceived service quality of domestic airlines across these dimensions was found to be poor. The most dissatisfied dimensions in order of ranking were: flight pattern, reliability, facilities, assurance, responsiveness, employee, and customization. On the basis of the aforementioned findings, this study concludes that airline operators should redefine their service standards to one that is customer-focused by identifying the dimension of service quality most preferred by the passengers and continuously strive to improve service delivery. The study recommends that airline operators should recognize the changing needs and expectations of air travellers and customize their range of services by identifying unique service requirements of the individual customers.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdulahi F. (2006). Measuring service quality in higher education HEDPERF and SERVPERF. Marketing Intelligence and Planning 24(1): 31–47.

  • Accenture. (2013). Huge cost profile makes Nigerian airlines high-risk business. Business Day Newspaper. Retrieved: June 2014 from: http://www.businessdaynewspaper/huge-cost-profile-makes-nigerian-airlines-high-risk-business.

  • Airport Cooperative Research Program (2013). How airports measure customer service performance: A synthesis of airport practice. Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Transportation Research Board Washington D. C. Retrieved: September 7 2014 from: http://www.TRB.org.

  • Aldridge S.; Rowley J. (1998). Measuring customer satisfaction in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education 6(4): 197–204.

  • Amin M. E. (2005). Social science research: Conception methodology and analysis. Kampala: Makerere University Press.

  • Anderson J. L.; Jolly L. D.; Fairhurst A. E. (2007). Customer relationship management in retailing: A content analysis of retail trade journals. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 14(6): 394–399.

  • Bamford D.; Xystouri T. (2005). A case study of service failure and recovery within an international airline. Managing Service Quality 15(3): 306–322.

  • Bayo O. (2012). The evil in the Nigeria aviation sector. Leadership Newspaper. Retrieved: March 16 2013 from: http://www.leadership.org/archive/about-aviation-sector.

  • Boetsch T.; Bieger T.; Wittmer A. (2011). A customer value framework for analysing airline services. Transportation Research on Air Transport Marketing. Retrieved: May 20 2013 from: http://www.aensiweb.com/jasr/2013/2505-2512.pdf.

  • Brady M. K.; Cronin J. J. (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: A hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing 65(3): 34–49.

  • Bryman A.; Bell E. (2011). Business research methods (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Buttle F. (1994). What’s wrong with SERVQUAL? Working Paper Series No. 277 July 1994 Manchester Business School Manchester. MCB University Press. Retrieved: May 20 2013 from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?article.pdf.

  • Carman J. M. (1990). Consumer perceptions of service quality: An assessment of the SERVQUAL dimensions. Journal of Retailing 66(1): Spring 33–55.

  • Chang J. C. (2008). Taiwanese tourists’ perceptions of service quality on outbound-guided package tours: A qualitative examination of the SERVQUAL dimensions. Journal of Vacation Marketing 15(2): 164–178.

  • Chase R. B. (1978). Where does the customer fit into the service operation? Harvard Business Review 56(November–December): 37–42.

  • Chelladurai P.; Chang K. (2000). Targets and standards of quality in sport services. Sport Management Review 3: 1–22.

  • Chen F. Y.; Chang Y. H. (2005). Examining airline service quality from a process perspective. Journal of Air Transport Management 11: 79–87.

  • Chikwendu D. U.; Ejem E.; Ezenwa A. (2012). Evaluation of service quality of Nigerian airline using SERVQUAL Model. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism 3(6): 117–125.

  • Cronin J.; Taylor S. (1992). Measuring service quality: A re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing 56(3): 55–68.

  • Cronin J.; Taylor S. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling performance-based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of Marketing 58(1): 125–131.

  • Dagger T. S.; Sweeney J. C.; Johnson L. W. (2007). A hierarchical model of health service quality: Scale development and investigation of an integrated model. Journal of Service Research 10(2): 123–142.

  • Diamantopoulos A. (2006). The error term in formative measurement models: Interpretation and modelling implications. Journal of Modelling in Management 1(1): 1–17.

  • Elliott K. M.; Roach D. W. (1993). Service quality in the airline industry: Are carriers getting an unbiased evaluation from consumers? Journal of Professional Services Marketing 9: 71–82.

  • Faheed S. K. (1998). An investigation of airline service quality passenger satisfaction and loyalty: The case of Royal Jordanian Airline. A Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). Sheffield University Management School: Sheffield University.

  • Federal Ministry of Aviation. (2013). Aviation accidents and incidents in Nigeria. Retrieved: May 20 2013 from: http://www.aviation.gov.ng.

  • Folkes V.; Patrick V. (2003). Positivity effects for services: Seen one seen them all? Journal of Consumer Research 30(June): 125–137.

  • Geraldine U.; Chikwendu D. U. (2013). Effects of airline service quality on airline image and passengers’ loyalty: Findings from Arik Air Nigeria Passengers. Journal of Hospitality and Management Tourism 4(2): 19–28.

  • Gilbert D.; Wong R. K. C. (2003). Passenger expectations and airline services: A Hong Kong based study. Tourism Management 24: 519–532.

  • Gilbert G. R.; Veloutsou C. (2006). A cross-industry comparison of customer satisfaction. The Journal of Services Marketing 20(5): 298.

  • Gourdin K. N. (1998). Bringing quality back to commercial travel. Transport Journal 27: 23–29.

  • Grönroos C. (1982). Strategic management and marketing in the service sector. Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration Helsinki. Retrieved: May 20 2013 from: http://www.hanken-fi/staff/Grönroos.pdf.

  • Grönroos C. (1984). Strategic management and marketing in the service sector. Bromley Chartwell: Brat.

  • Grönroos C. (1990). Service management and marketing: Managing the moment of truth in service competition. Lexington MA: Lexington Books.

  • Grönroos C. (2007). In search of a new logic for marketing: Foundations of contemporary theory. West Sussex John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Ha J.; Jang S. (2009). Perceived justice in service recovery and behavioral intentions: The role of relationship quality. International Journal of Hospitality Management 28: 319–327.

  • Hair J.; Black W.; Babin B.; Anderson R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice-Hall.

  • Hutton J. D.; Richardson L. D. (1995). Healthscapes: The importance of place. Journal of Health Care Marketing 15(1): 10.

  • Iacobucci D.; Grayson K. A.; Ostrom A. L. (1994). The calculus of service quality and customer satisfaction: Theoretical and empirical differentiation and integration. Advances in Services Marketing and Management 3(1): 67.

  • IATA. (2014). Economic performance of the airline industry – 2014 mid-year report. Retrieved: May 20 2013 from: http://www.iata.org/economicsreport-2014.pdf.

  • Jin-Woo P.; Rodger R.; Cheng-Lung W. (2005). Investigating the effects of airline service quality on airline image and passengers’ future behavioural intentions: Findings from Australian international air passengers. The Journal of Tourism Studies 16(1): 1–10

  • Jun M.; Yang Z.; Kim D. S. (2004). Customers’ perceptions of online retailing service quality and their satisfaction. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 21(8): 817–840.

  • Kumar M.; Kee F. T.; Manshor A. T. (2009). Determining the relative importance of critical factors in delivering service quality of banks: An application of dominance analysis in SERVQUAL model. Managing Service Quality 19(2): 211–228.

  • Ladhari R. (2008). Alternative measures of service quality – A review. Managing Service Quality 18(1): 65–86.

  • Lewis A. (2010). Service quality model evaluation. Journal of Transport Logistic Management International Review 34: 235–254.

  • Lovelock C.; Wirtz J. (2004). Services marketing: People technology and strategy (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • Lucey T. (2000). Quantitative techniques (5th ed.). London: ELST London: Ashford Colour Press.

  • Mersha T.; Adlakha V. (1992). Attributes of service quality: The consumers’ perspective. International Journal of Service Industry Management 3(3): 34–45.

  • Mojekwu J. N. (2012). Business statistics with selected examples (3rd ed.). Lagos: Easy Prints Publication. 82–83.

  • Mostert P. G.; De Meyer C. F.; van-Rensburg L. R. J. (2009). The influence of service failure and service recovery on airline passengers’ relationships with domestic airlines: An exploratory study. Southern African Business Review 13(2): 118–140.

  • Nadia H. A. (2013). Price service quality and customer loyalty: A case of Air Asia. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business Economics and Law 2(1): 1–7.

  • National Bureau of Statistics (2014). Nigerian Aviation Sector – Summary report of passenger traffic: 2010–2013 and Quarter One 2014. Retrieved: May 20 2014 from http://www.nigeriastat.gov.ng.

  • Nitin S.; Deshmukh S. G.; Prem V. (2004). Service quality models: A review. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 22(9): 913–949.

  • Nkem O. (2013). Enforcing passengers’ bill of rights. Leadership Newspaper. Retrieved: April 16 2013 from: http://www.leadership.ng/news/090713.

  • Nor K. A.; Wan N. M. (2013). Perceptions of service quality and behavioural intentions: A mediation effect of patient satisfaction in the private health care in Malaysia. International Journal of Marketing Studies 5(4): 15–29.

  • Ogwude I. C. (1986). Industrial demand for freight transport in Nigeria. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation. Department of Economics University of Ibadan.

  • Okechukwu N. (2012). Plane crashes take toll on aviation sector. Punch Newspaper. Retrieved: August 14 2014 from: http://www.punchnewspaper.ng/news.

  • Olalerin E. A. (2009). Murtala Muhammed International Airport MMIA’s optimism on traffic growth expansion – Aviation and allied business update. Nigeria’s Journal of Aviation Development September–October 2009.

  • Olaniyi T. K.; Onwuka E. O.; Agu J. R. (2014). A survey of integrating best practices to enhance airlines customer satisfaction. International Conference on Science Technology Education Arts Management and Social Sciences – iSTEAMS Research Nexus Conference Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti Nigeria May 2014. Retrieved: April 14 2016 from: http://www.iiste.org.

  • Oluwakoya A.; Olufemi C. (2011). Airline services in Nigeria: An empirical analysis. International Business Management 5(4) 218–222.

  • Ostrowski P. L.; O’Brien T. V. Gordon G. L. (1993). Service quality and customer loyalty in the commercial airline Industry. Journal of Travel Research 32(2): 16–24.

  • Pakdil F.; Aydin O. (2007). Expectations and perceptions in airline services: An analysis using weighted SERVQUAL scores. Air Transport Research Management 13: 229–237.

  • Parasuraman A.; Zeithaml V. A.; Berry L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perception of service quality. Journal of Retailing 64(1): 12–37.

  • Parasuraman A.; Zeithaml V. A.; Malhotra A. (2005). E-S-QUAL: A multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality. Journal of Service Research 7(3): 213–233.

  • Parasuraman A.; Zeithaml V.; Berry L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implication for future research. Journal of Marketing 49: 49–63.

  • Park J.; Robertson R.; Wu C. (2004). The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: A Korean case study. Journal of Air Transport Management 10 435–439.

  • Phau I.; Baird M. (2008). Complainers versus non-complainers retaliatory responses towards service dissatisfactions. Quarterly Marketing Intelligence and Planning 26(6): 9.

  • Philip G.; Hazlet S. A. (1997). The measurement of service quality: A new P-C-P attributes model. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 14(3): 260–286.

  • Rahim A. G. (2015). Customer satisfaction and loyalty towards perceived service quality of domestic airlines in Nigeria. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis University of Lagos Lagos.

  • Rossiter J. R. (2002). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing 19(4): 305–335.

  • Sarantakos S. (2005). Social research (3rd ed.). New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Schneider B.; White S. (2004). Service quality: Research perspective. Thousand Oaks California: Sage Publications.

  • Seth N.; Deshmukh S. G. (2004). Service quality models: A review. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 22(9): 913–949.

  • Sulaiman I. A. (2012). An analysis of air transportation in Nigeria. JORIND 10(2). Retrieved: August 15 2014 from: http://www.ajol.info/journals/jorind.

  • Tiernan S.; Rhoades D. L.; Waguespack Jr. B. (2008). Airline service quality: Exploratory analysis of consumer perceptions and operational performance in the USA and EU. Managing Service Quality 18(3): 212–224.

  • Truitt L.; Haynes R. (1994). Evaluating service quality and productivity in the regional airline industry. Transportation Journal 33(4): 21–32.

  • Van-Pham K.; Simpson M. (2006). The impact of frequency of use on service quality expectations: an empirical study of trans-Atlantic airline passengers. Journal of American Academy of Business 10(1): 1.

  • Vander-Walt L. (2003). Strategic organisational communication: Paradigms and paradoxes. Sandown: Heinemann.

  • Williams S.; Praise M. (2013). Passenger power over airlines come into force with “Bill of Rights”. Business Day Newspaper Retrieved: June 2014 from: http://www.businessdaynewspaper.

  • Zeithaml V. A.; Bitner M. J. (2003). Service marketing: The company with customer focus (2nd ed.). Porto Alegre: Bookman.

  • Zeithaml V. A.; Parasuraman A.; Berry L. L. (1990). Delivering quality service: balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York: Free Press.

  • Zikmund W. G. (2003). Business research methods (7th ed.). Ohio Thomson South Western Publishing.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 684 249 13
PDF Downloads 392 182 9