Water Quality and Crop Contamination in Peri-Urban Agriculture

Open access

Abstract

The quality of untreated water used by dry season vegetable growers determines the safety of the vegetables produced for human consumption. Traditionally, small scale vegetable farmers site their farms along banks of streams which gradually dry up during the dry season resulting in isolated pockets of ponds at different intervals along the path of the streams which are used by farmers to irrigate. A field experiment was initiated at Ibadan to ascertain the quality of irrigation water used to produce vegetables along Ona-stream during the dry season. Five isolated ponds and one locally dug well were sampled and analysed to ascertain the heavy metals status. Results of soil analysis from five farms (A - E) sited very close to the stream revealed high concentrations of heavy metals ranging from 0.96 to 2.34 mg kg-1 for Pb, 0.72 to 2.16 mg kg-1 for Cr and 0.30 to 0.92 mg kg-1 for Co while farmland F sited about 90m away from the stream was free of Pb, Cr and Co contaminants. Locally dug well F water was free of Cr, Co and Pb while isolated ponds had Cr, Co and Pb in the range of 0.01 to 0.23 mg kg-1 which is beyond safe consumption thresholds. There were strong correlations between heavy metals in water and vegetable for Cr (0.992**), Cd (0.599**), Ni (0.614*) and Pb (0.552**) indicating that the hygienic status of dry season vegetables is largely determined by the quality of irrigation water. In addition, all vegetables irrigated with untreated isolated ponds contained Cd, Pb and Ni concentrations above maximum permissible standard which could pose risk to human health. Therefore, farmers should be enlightened on the need to use hygienic water for irrigation. Construction of shallow wells on the farms instead of using contaminated stream water directly could be a better option for healthy and sustainable agriculture.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Asiegbu J.E. (1983): Effects of methods of harvest and interval between harvests on edible leaf yield in fluted pumpkin. Scientia Horticulturae 21(1): 129-136.

  • Eddy N.O. Udoh C.L. (2006): Introduction to Environmental chemistry. Patom Press Nigeria. In: Ademoroti C.M.A (ed.). Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology. Fludex Press Limited Ibadan Nigeria 1993 edition. World Health Organisation Geneva.

  • Ellah J.D. (2004): Intra household roles in the production processing and marketing of Soya bean in the northern agricultural zone of Benue State. A Postgraduate Degree Research Project submitted to the Department of Agricultural Extension University of Nigeria Nsukka Enugu State pp. 58.

  • Chaudry R. Ashish P. Mukerji K. (1989): Effect of some atmospheric pollutants on micro-organisms. Frontiers in Applied Microbiology. In: Mukerji K. Singh V. and Garg K. (Eds.) Rastogi and co. India pp. 84 - 89.

  • FAO (1985): Water Quality for Agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29 Rev. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome.

  • FAO/WHO (2003): Diet nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation Geneva Technical Report Series No. 916.

  • FEPA (1991): Proposed National Water Quality Standards. Federal Environmental Protection Agency Nigeria. Quality Water Reference 28(1): 119-124.

  • Florigin P.J. (1993): Differential distribution of cadmium in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). International Environmental Chemistry 46: 23-31.

  • FWR (Foundation for Water Research) (1993): Diffuse sources of heavy metals to sewers. Research report of FWR 29 p.

  • Gee G.W. Or D. (2002): Particle-Size Analysis. In: Dane J.H. Topp G.C. (Eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4. Physical Methods. SSSA Inc. Madison WI. pp. 255-294.

  • Ghesquire P. (1999): Indirect wastewater reuse for peri-urban irrigation in Kumasi Ghana. An assessment of surface water quality for irrigation and its implications for human health. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of Diploma in Water and Environment. ENGEES Strasbourg France. /HR Wallingford UK.

  • Gray C.W. Mclaren R.G. Roberts A.H.C Condrin L.M. (1999): Solubility sorption and desorption of native and added cadmium in relation to properties of soils in New Zealand. European Journals of Soil Science 50: 127-137.

  • Grossman R. B. Reinsch T. G. (2002): Bulk density and linear extensibility: Core method. In: J. H. Dane and G. C. Topp (Eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4 Physical Methods SSSA Inc. Madison pp. 208-228.

  • Hashim M.A. Mukhopadhyay S. Sahu J.N. Sengupta B. (2011): Remediation technologies for heavy metal contaminated groundwater. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 2355- 2388.

  • Hillel D. (2004): Introduction to environmental soil physics. Academic Press London. 494 p.

  • Jackson M.L. (1965): Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc Englewood Cliffs New Jersey pp. 326-338.

  • Johnson F.M. (1998): The genetic effects of environmental lead. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 410: 123-140.

  • Kintomo A.A. Ogunkeye O.O. Ogungbaigbe L.O. (997): Peri-Urban dry season vegetable production in Ibadan Nigeria. Tropiculture 15 (2): 61-65.

  • Klute A. (1986): Water retention: Laboratory methods. In: Klute A. (Ed.) 2nd edition. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1. Agronomy Monograph 9. ASA and SSSA Madison WI p. 635-662.

  • Leita L. Denobili M. Mulbachosa G. (1995): Bioavailability and effects of heavy metals on soil microbial biomass survival during laboratory inoculation. Biology and Fertility Soils 19: 103-108.

  • Li Q. Cai S. Mo C. Chu B. Peng L. Yang F. (2010): Toxic effects of heavy metals and their accumulation in vegetables grown in saline soils. Ecotoxical Environmental Safety 739 (1):84-88.

  • Maejima Y. Makino T. Takamo H. Kamiya T. (2007): Remediation of cadmium contaminated paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Effect of soil washing on cadmium uptake by soyabean. Chemosphere 67: 748-754.

  • Neal R.E. Lin C. Isom R. Vaishnav K. Zigler Jr. S. (2010): Opacification of leaves cultured in the presence of Pb. Molecular Vision 16: 2137-2145.

  • Nelson D.W. Sommers L.E. (1982): Total organic carbon and organic matter. In: Klute A. (Ed.) 2nd edition. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2: Agronomy Monograph 9 ASA Madison WI pp. 539-594.

  • NIAES (2004): Agriculture and environment. National Institute for Agro. Environmental Sciences. Technical Report 56. Available online at http:www.niaes.affrc.go.jp/techdoc/soya_cd.pdf. Retrieved on 12/3/2010.

  • Rieuwerts J.S. Ashmore M.R. Farago M.E. Thornton I. (2006): The influence of soil characteristics on the extractability of Cd Pb and Zn in upland and moorland soils. Science Total Environment 366: 864-875.

  • SAS Institute (2002): Statistical Analysis System “SAS/ STAT” User`s Guide Version 6 Fourth edition; Vol. 1. The SAS Institute Inc. Gary N.C.

  • Shu W.S. Xia H.P. Zeu Q. (2000): Use of vetiver and three other grasses for re-vegetation of a Pb/Zn mine Tailings at Leachang Guangdong Province. In: Truong P. and Xia H.P. (eds): Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Vetiver China pp. 58-68.

  • Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON) (2007): Nigeria Standards for drinking water quality ICS 13.060.20. Price group D. Nis. 554: 2007.

  • Tiller K. Merry R. McLaughin M. (1994): Cadmium: A modern day problem. Rural Research 162: 32-35.

  • Tony R.N. (2003): Water land and health in Urban and peri-urban food production. Willing Journal of Land Degradation and Development 14(5): 431- 444.

  • Van Leeuwen N.H. (2001): Irrigation reforms in Africa. In: Hilmy S. Abernetthy C.L. (Eds.) Proceedings of Regional Seminar on Private Sector Participation and Irrigation Expansion in Sub-Sahara Africa held in Accra Ghana pp. 50-58.

  • Westcot D.W. (1997): Quality control of wastewater for irrigation crop production. FAO Water report. No. 10. FAO Rome. 86 p.

  • World Health Organisation (1973): Use of effluents: Methods of waste water treatment and health safeguard report of a WHO Meeting of Experts. Technical Report No. 517 WHO Geneva.

  • World Health Organisation (1993): Guidelines for drinkingwater quality. Vol. 1. Recommendations. France: WHO 181 p.

  • Zata A.I. Vahyala I.E. Dzarma I.S. Ibrahim A. (2008): Assessment of water quality for irrigation on human USTERS North Eastern Nigeria. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Soil Society of Nigeria pp. 169-173.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 328 113 10
PDF Downloads 213 87 9