Introduction: In this study, it was aimed to examine the expectations of elementary and secondary school parents from the mathematics education and their engagements in the education and the mathematics homework habits of their children.
Methods: The research data was collected by “A Scale to Determine Parents’ Expectation from Mathematics Education”, “Mathematics Homework Behavior Scale” and the “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researcher. The data of this study executed and conducted by survey model was analyzed by SPSS 16.
Results: In the study, it is revealed that the expectations of parents from Mathematics education and the mathematics homework habit of their children are high. There is no difference based on the levels of the children and parentage status of the parents, regardless of being mother or father, the mathematics homework habit of the children who favor mathematics lesson and at the same time thrive on is more favorable and positive than the ones who do not favor mathematics lesson and at the same time fail to thrive on, the homework habit of the children whom are supported sufficiently in the mathematics lesson is more favorable and positive. Last but not least, there is no correlation between the expectations of the parents from Mathematics education and the homework habits of their children.
Discussion: High expectations of parents from mathematics classes may suggest that they trust their children and their teachers. It may also suggest that they are involved in the education process and that they find it sufficient. Based on the findings of this study, according to which the level of homework habits of the parents’ children is high, it can be assumed that the students do their homework willingly and they have no problems with doing their daily homework. Parents’ help their children’s with homework occasionally to make them feel that they are not alone in this process. Lower expectations from their children and lower engagement of parents at upper levels may be caused by the fact that they cannot support their children sufficiently due to the complexity of subjects. In elementary schools, since their children are smaller in terms of age, parents may think that their children need more help and they can be more active in education because the subjects in elementary school are not as complicated as in higher classes. The math homework habits do not differ according to the education level of students’ but, based on the scores, we can say that they are more favourable in the elementary school since the children are younger and besides, in Turkey, children are assigned homework more regularly and the homework habits start to emerge at the elementary school level. Just depending on the scores, it is interesting to note that the expectations of fathers from mathematics education and their engagement in the process are higher than those of mothers. This may suggest that the expectations of fathers from their children may be due to the higher goals they set for them and perhaps since they are more perfectionist, they are more involved in the children’s education than mothers. To like a lesson, can be considered a precondition for doing the assigned homework more willingly. Children do their homework more willingly in the courses at which they consider themselves successful. That is why the results of this study are not surprising. The homework habits of the children sufficiently supported in mathematics are expected to be more favourable. The expectations of parents from mathematics lesson were not related to their children’s homework habits. The absence of homework habits, in the parents’ expectation from mathematics lesson, may be due to not getting a clear answer from the parents with respect to the question whether homework should be assigned in education or not.
Limitations: These research and data collection tools used are limited only by the thoughts of parents of primary and middle school students in Turkey.
Conclusions: The child, being aware that he is not alone in the process, will be more confident if he knows that there is a family support behind him in overcoming mathematics.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Acar E. Ersoy E. Eser N. & Akar-Vural R. (2013). The relationship of the problems of ballet dancers in Turkey with the education process after active dance life. Boğaziçi University Journal of Education 30(2) 47-85.
Akay Y. (2012). The effect of performance tasks with parental involvement on the elementary 5th grade students’ achievements and attitudes in mathematics lesson (Master’s thesis). Izmir: Dokuz Eylül University.
Akbaba-Altun S. (2009). An investigation of teachers’ parents’ and students’ opinions on elementary students’ academic failure. Elementary Education Online 8(2) 567-586.
Albayrak M. Yıldız A. Berber K. & Büyükkasap E. (2004). Parents’ opinions about extracurricular activities in elementary school and related student behaviors. Kastamonu Education Journal12(1) 13-18.
Aloia S. (2003). Teacher assessment of homework. Academic Exchange Quarterly 7 71-77.
Anderson A. (1997). Families and Mathematics: A study of parent-child interactions. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 28(4) 484-511.
Anderson K. J. & Minke K. M. (2007). Parent involvement in education: Toward an understanding of parents’ decision making. The Journal of Educational Research100(5) 311-323.
Arıkan S. (2017). The relationship between homework and mathematics achievement in Turkey according to TIMSS 2011. International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences8(26) 256-276.
Ayral M. et al. (2012). The effect of parent participation on students’ mathematics achievement. IV. International Educational Research Congress 56-64.
Aytekin C. Baltacı S. Altunkaya B. Kıymaz Y. & Yıldız A. (2016). A scale to determine parents’ expectation from Mathematics education (PEME): Development reliability and validity. Ahi Evran University Journal of Education 17(3) 397-411.
Baltaoğlu M. G. Sucuoğlu H. & Öztürk N. (2017). Classroom teachers’ opinions about homeworks. Journal of Education and Future11 95-109.
Barnová S. Tamášová V. & Krásna S. (2019). The role of resilience in coping with negative parental behaviour. Acta Educationis Generalis 9(2) 93-106. https://doi.org/10.2478/atd-2019-0010
Bean R. A. Bush K. R. McKenry P. C. & Wilson S. M. (2003). The Impact of parental support behavioral control and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African-American and European American Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research18(5) 523-541.
Beydoğan H. Ö. (2006). The models and approaches about the parent involvement in education process. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Education Faculty 7(1) 75-90.
Booth A. & Dunn J. F. (1996). Family school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Büyüktokatlı N. (2009). Examination of teachers’ opinions about homework applications in primary education (Master’s thesis). Konya Turkey: Selçuk University.
Cai J. Moyer J. C. & Wang N. (1999). Parental roles in students’ learning of mathematics: An exploratory study. Research in Middle Level Education Quarterly22(3) 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10848959.1999.11670147
Cai J. (2003). Investigating parental roles of students’ learning of mathematics from a cross-national perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal15(2) 87-106.
Cheema J. R. & Sheridan K. (2015). Time spent on homework mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement: Evidence from a US sample. Issues in Educational Research25 246-259.
Civil M. Díez-Palomar J. Menéndez J. M. & Acosta-Iriqui J. (2008). Parents’ interactions with their children when doing mathematics. ALM International Journal3(2a) 41-58.
Cool V. A. & Keith T. Z. (1991). Testing a model of school learning: Direct in direct effects on academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology16 28-44.
Cooper H. (1989). Homework. White Plains NY: Longman.
Çelenk S. (2003). The Prerequisite for School Success: Home-School Cooperation. Elementary Education Online2(2) 28-34.
Dinç F. (2017). Relationship between level of participation in education and student success (Master’s thesis without thesis) Denizli Turkey: Pamukkale University.
Duru S. & Çöğmen S. (2016). The validity and reliability study of the Homework Motivation Scale. International Periodical for the Languages Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic11(3) 1049-1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.9395
Duru S. & Çöğmen S. (2017). Views of primary and secondary school students and their parents on homework. Elementary Education Online16(1) 354-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.17051/io.2017.76577
Eccles J. S. & Harold R. D. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record94 568-587.
Else-Quest N. M. Hyde J. S. & Hejmadi A. (2008). Mother and child emotions during mathematics homework. Mathematical Thinking and Learning10 5-35.
Englund M. M. Luckner A. E. Whaley G. J. L. & Egeland B. (2004). Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental involvement expectations and quality of assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology96(4) 723-730.
Erbay H. N. (2013). Family relationship with mathematics achievement of functionality: South correlations Turkey Comparison (Master’s thesis). Istanbul Turkey: Marmara University.
Ersoy A. & Anagün Ş. S. (2009). Elementary teachers’ views about homework process in science and technology course. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education3(1) 58-79.
Fan X. & Chen M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review13(1) 1-22.
Fan H. Xu J. Cai Z. He C. & Fan X. (2017). Homework and students’ achievement in math and science: A 30-year meta-analysis 1986-2015. Educational Research Review20 35-54.
Fernandez-Alonso R. Suarez-Alvarez J. & Muniz J. (2015). Adolescents’ homework performance in mathematics and science: Personal factors and teaching practices. Journal of Educational Psychology107 1075-1085.
George D. & Mallery M. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 17.0 update. Boston: Pearson.
Ginsburg K. R. (2007). The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics119(1) 182-191.
Gonzales-Pienda J. A. et al. (2002). A structural equation model of parental involvement motivational and attitudinal characteristics and academic achievement. The Journal of Experimental Education70(3) 257-287.
Greenwood G. E. & Hickman C. W. (1991). Research and practice in parental involvement: Implications for teacher education. The Elementary School Journal9(3) 279-288.
Gutman L. M. & Midgley C. (2000). The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence29 233-248.
Hacısalihoğlu-Karadeniz M. Aksu H. H. & Topal T. (2012). The effect of the process of parents’ participation on the primary-school 1st grade students’ math success. Journal of National Education19 232-245.
Haddock V. (2011). After Years of Teachers piling it on there’s a new movement to abolish homework. The San Francisco Chronicle.
Hatch T. (1998). How community action contributes to achievement. Educational Leadership55(8) 16-19.
Hill T. A. (1992). Homework: How effective? How much to assign? The need for clear policies. OSSC Bulletin36(1) 1-41.
Henderson A. T. & Mapp K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school family and community connections on student achievement. Austin TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
Hong E. Milgram R. M. & Perkins P. G. (1995). Homework style and homework behavior of Korean and American children. Journal of Research and Development in Education 4 197-207.
Hong E. Mason E. Peng Y. & Lee N. (2016). Effects of homework motivation and worry anxiety on homework achievement in mathematics and English. Educational Research and Evaluation1(7) 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2015.1131721
Hyde J. S. Else-Quest N. M. Alibali M. W. Knuth E. & Romberg T. (2006). Mathematics in the home: Homework practices and mother-child interactions doing mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior25 136-152.
Iflazoğlu A. & Hong E. (2012). Relationships of homework motivation and preferences to homework achievement and attitudes in Turkish students. Journal of Research in Childhood Education26 57-72.
Jeynes W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement a meta-analysis. Urban Education42(1) 82-110.
Jong R. Westerhof K. J. & Creemers B. P. M. (2000). Homework and student Math achievement in junior high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice6(2) 130-157.
Kapıkıran Ş. & Kıran H. (1999). The effect of the homework on the student’s academic success. Pamukkale University Journal of Education 5 54-60.
Karaca D. & Gür H. (2004). Participation of families in village and urban settlements in mathematics teaching. V. National Science and Mathematics Education Congress. Available at http://www.fedu.metu.edu.tr/ufbmek-5/b_kitabi/b_kitabi.htm
Karasar N. (2005). Scientific research method. Ankara: Nobel Broadcast Distribution.
Kaur B. (2011). Mathematics homework: A study of three grade eight classrooms in Singapore. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education9 187-206.
Keçeli-Kaysılı B. (2008). Parent involvement to improve academic achievement. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education9(1) 69-83.
Kitsantas A. Cheema J. & Ware H. W. (2011). Mathematics achievement: The role of homework and self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of Advanced Academics22 310-339.
Kohn A. (2006). The truth about homework. Education Week 26(2) 44-52.
Korkmaz P. & Bektaş M. (2014). The Effect of the Use of the Parent Teacher Information Guide for 2nd Grade Mathematics Lesson on the Parents’ Awareness. III. Proceedings of the Congress of Educational Research in Sakarya (pp. 66-73).
Kotaman H. (2008). The level of participation of Turkish parents’ children in education. Journal of Uludag University Faculty of Education 21(1) 135-149.
Kutluca T. & Aydın M. (2010). Interest Attitudes and Support towards Families’ Mathematics Education. Family and Society6(22) 65-78.
Loomans M. G. S. (2014). Parent involvement that supports children academically and promotes the development of independence (Master’s thesis) University of Wisconsin.
Marchant G. J. Paulson S. E. & Rothlisberg B. A. (2001). Relations of middle school students’ perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools38(6) 505-519.
Maton K. I. & Hrabowski F. A. (1998). Preparing the way: A qualitative study of high-achieving African American Males and the role of the family. American Journal of Community Psychology26(4) 639-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022197006900
Nuez J. C. Suárez N. Rosário P. Vallejo G. Valle A. & Epstein J. L. (2015). Relationships between perceived parental involvement in homework student homework behaviors and academic achievement: Differences among elementary junior high and high school students. Meta-cognition Learning10(3) 375-406.
Nyabuto A. N. & Njoroge P. M. (2014). Parental involvement on pupils’ performance in mathematics in public primary schools in Kenya. Journal of Educational and Social Research4(1) 19-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n1p19
O’Sullivan R. (2008). The effect of parental involvement with mathematics homework on early elementary and junior high school students (Dissertation thesis). New York: The City University of New York.
Özcan Z. Ç. & Ertkin E. (2013). Mathematics Homework Behavior Scale: Reliability and validity study. Boğaziçi University Journal of Education 31(2) 27-47.
Özcan B. N. (2016). Investigation of parents’ beliefs and participation in their children’s math learning process. The Journal of International Education Science 8 105-117.
Özcan B. N. & Göğebakan-Yıldız D. (2017). Parents’ opinions about mathematics homeworks and role and involvement on their child’s math homework. Journal of TUBAV Science 10(4) 58-70.
Patrikakou E. N. (2008). The power of parent involvement: Evidence ideas and tools for student success. Chicago Academic Development Institute DePaul University.
Pelletier R. (2005). The predictive power of homework assignments on student achievement in grade three (Doctoral dissertation). Miami Florida: Florida International University.
Peressini D. D. (1998). The portrayal of parents in the school mathematics reform literature: Locating the context for parental involvement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education29(5) 555-582.
Pezdek K. Berry T. & Renn P. A. (2002). Children’s mathematics achievement: The role of parents’ perceptions and their involvement in homework. Journal of Educational Psychology94(4) 771-777.
Price J. (1997). President’s report: Building bridges of mathematical understanding for all children. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education27 603-608.
Rajoo M. & Velo A. (2015). The development of Mathematics Homework Engagement (MHE) Instrument for secondary school students Malaysia. Review of European Studies7(7) 87-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n7p87
Rudman N. P. C. (2014). A review of homework literature as a precursor to practitioner-led doctoral research in a primary school. Research in Education91 12-29.
Schickedanz J. A. (2003). Family socialization and academic achievement. Journal of Education1 17-34.
Simon B. (2000). Predictors of high school and family partnerships and the influence of partnerships on student success (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Baltimore MD: John Hopkins University.
Shumow L. & Miller J. D. (2001). Parents’ at home and at school academic involvement with young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence21(1) 68-92.
Şahin-Doğruer Ş. (2014). Effects of parental roles in students’ mathematical learning: How does the education level of parents effect their involvement? The Eurasia Proceedings of Educational & Social Sciences (EPESS) 1 84-89.
Şen H. Ş. & Gülcan M. G. (2012). Parent’s opinions about the homework set for 4th and 5th grades of the primary school. Gazi University Journal of Industrial Arts Education Faculty29 29-41.
Tekin H. (1993). Measurement and evaluation in education. Ankara: Yargı Publishing.
Thelen S. L. O. (2008). The relationship between mathematics homework and learning in middle-school students: Impact on achievement (Master dissertation of Science in Education) Dominican University of California.
Tsui M. (2005). Family income home environment parenting and mathematics Achievement of children in China and the United States. Education and Urban Society37(3) 336-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013124504274188
Toldson I. A. & Lemmons B. P. (2013). Social demographics the school environment and parenting practices associated with parents’ participation in schools and academic success among black Hispanic and white students. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment23(2) 237-255.
Trautwein U. Köller O. Schmitz B. & Baumert J. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel analysis in 7th grade mathematics. Contemporary Educational Psychology27 26-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.2001.1084
Turan-Özpolat E. Karakoç B. & Kara K. (2017). Evaluation of the teachers and parents view about the homeworks given in the primary school. International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences8(30) 1849-1890.
Werf G. Creemers B. & Guldemond H. (2001). Improving parental involvement in primary education in Indonesia: Implementation effects and costs. School Effectiveness and School Improvement12(4) 447-466.
Voorhis F. L. V. (2011). Adding families to the homework equation: A longitudinal study of mathematics achievement. Education and Urban Society43(3) 313-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001312451038023
Xu M. et al. (2010). The relationship between parental involvement self-regulated learning and reading achievement of fifth graders: A path analysis using the ECLS-K database. Social Psychology of Education13(2) 237-269.
Yenilmez K. Özer M. N. & Yıldız Z. (2006). A study on parents’ approaches to and contribution to mathematics education of their children. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences 7(1).
Yenilmez K. (2006). The contribution levels of parents to mathematics education in primary education. Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education 6(1) 13-28.
Zhu Y. & Leung F. K. S. (2012). Homework and mathematics achievement in Hong Kong: Evidence from the TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education10 907-925.