Psychometric Properties of the Slovak Version of sEMBU on General Adult Sample

Open access


The factorial stability and reliability of the 23-item s(short)- EMBU previously demonstrated to be satisfactory in the samples of students from Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy (1999), East-Germany and Sweden (Arrindell et al., 2001). The Slovak translation of the original sEMBU was published in 2007 (Poliaková, Mojžišová, & Hašto, 2007). We decided to explore the psychometric properties of the translation of sEMBU on a general adult sample (N=970) in Slovakia, because the translated version of sEMBU is already utilized in research projects in Slovakia. The results show a very good alpha reliability of sEMBU. In the Slovak translation, we found similar scores of Rejection and Emotional warmth and Overprotection. A factor analysis with forced 3-factor solution sorted items to scales exactly as authors of sEMBU presupposed. Overprotection (father) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. Emotional warmth (mother) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. We discussed our results with the results from other studies and we suggest to continue in the research of the Slovak version of sEMBU focused on types of attachment, especially on the secure type of attachment.

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S.M., & Stayton, D. J. (1975). Infant-mother attachment and social development: Socialisation as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signal. In M. Richards, The Integration of the Child into a Social World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Arrindell, W. A. et al. (2001). The short-EMBU in East-Germany and Sweeden: A cross-national factorial validity extension. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 157-160.

Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Brilman, E., & Monsma, A. (1983). Psychometric evaluation of an inventory for assessment of parental rearing practices: a Dutch form of the EMBU. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 163-177.

Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Monsma, A., & Brilman, E. (1983). The role of Perceived Parental Rearing Practices in the Aetiology of Phobic Disorders: A controlled study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 183-187.

Arrindell, W. A., Sanavio, E., Aguilar, G., Sica, C., Hatzichristou, Ch., Eisemann, M., Recinos, L. A., Gaszner, P., Peter, M., Battagliese, G., Kallai, J., & Van Der Ende, J. (1999). The development of a short form of the EMBU: Its appraisal with students in Greece, Guatemala, Hungary and Italy. Personality and individual Differences, 27, 613-628.

Bogels, S. M., van Oosten, A., Muris, P., & Smulders, D. (2001). Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Behaviour and Therapy, 39, 273-287.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: vol. 1. In J. Bowlby, Attachment. Basic Books. New York.

Bowlby, J. (1991). Charles Darwin: A new biography. London: Hutchinson.

Castro, J., de Pablo, J., Gómez, J., Arrindell, W. A., & Toro, J. (1997). Assessing rearing behaviour from the perspective of the parents: a new form of the EMBU. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 230-235.

Eisemann, M., Perris, C., Perris, H., & von Knorring, L. (1984). Perceived parental rearing practices in depressed patients in relation to social class. Acta psychiatrica scandinavica, 70, 568-572.

García, L. F., Aluja, A., & Del Barrio, V. (2006). Effects of personality, rearing styles and social values on adolescents’ socialisation process. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1671-1682.

Hašto, J. (2005). Vzťahová väzba. Ku koreňom lásky a úzkosti. Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo F.

Jacobson, L., Lindstrom, H., von Knorring, L., Perris, C., & Perris, H. (1980). Perceived Parental Behaviour and Psychogenic Needs. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 228, 21-30.

Livianos-Aldana, & L., Rojo-Moreno, L. (2003). Construct validity of retrospective perception of parental relating scales: EMBU and PBI. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1707-1718.

Mojžišová, V. (2006). The issue of attachment in adult psychiatric patients with depressive and anxiety disorders [Attestation work, specialization in Clinical Psychology]. Bratislava.

Oldehinkel, A. J., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., de Winter, A. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (2006). Temperament, parenting, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of preadolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(7), 684-695.

Perris, C., Arrindell, W. A., van der Ende, J., Maj, M., Benjaminsen, S., Ross, M., Eisemann, M., & del Vecchio, M. (1985). Cross-national study of perceived parental rearing behaviour in healthy subjects from Australia, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden: pattern and level comparisons. Acta psychiatrica scandinavica, 72, 278-282.

Perris, C., Jacobson, L., Lindstrom, H., Von Knorring, L., & Perris, H. (1980). Development of a new inventory for assessing memories of parental rearing behaviour. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 265-274.

Poliaková, M., Mojžišová, V., & Hašto, J. (2007). Skrátený dotazník zapamätaného rodičovského správania ako výskumný klinický nástroj s.E.M.B.U. Psychiatria-Psychosomatika, 14, 79-88.

Richter, J., & Eisemann, M. (2001). Stability of Memories of Parental Rearing amnong Psychiatric Inpatients: A Replication Based on EMBU Subscales. Psychopathology, 34, 318-325.

Rojo-Moreno, L., Livianos-Aldana, L., Cervera-Martínez, G., & Dominguez- Carabantes, J. A. (1999). Rearing style and depressive disorder in adulthhood: a controlled study in a Spanish clinical sample. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 34, 548-554.

Saleem, S., & Mahmood, Z. (2011). Development of a scale for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of school children. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(2), 73-78.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 103 103 12
PDF Downloads 27 27 6