Gender Differences in Attachment Styles Using Slovak Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R)

Open access


There is a vast amount of literature on similarities and differences of women and men experiencing (close) relationships and using different strategies for coping with daily stress and significant life events. Western folk psychology expects women to be generally more anxious and men to be more avoidant when solving close-relationship conflicts and experiences in long term relationships. We used the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire that is based on the Attachment-style theory distinguishing four distinct attachment styles - secure, anxious/ambivalent, disoriented/disorganized and avoidant.


  • AL-YAGON, A. - MIKULINCER, M.: Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment Among Children with Learning Disorders: The Mediational Role of Attachment- Based Factors. In The journal of special education, vol. 38, 2004, no. 2, pp. 111-123.

  • ALONSO-ARBIOL, I. - BALLUERKA, N. - SHAVER, P. R.: A Spanish version of the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) adult attachment questionnaire. In Personal Relationships, vol. 14, 2007, pp. 45-63.

  • AMIRKHAM, J. H.: A Factor Analytic Derived Measure of Coping. The Coping Strategy Indicator. In Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, vol. 59, 1990, no. 5, pp. 1066-1074.

  • BIEŠČAD, M. - HAŠTO, J.: Diagnostikovanie typov vzťahovej väzby (attachment) v dospelosti s použitím nástrojov dostupných v našich podmienkach. (Diagnosing of attachment types in adulthood using available tools). In Psychiatrie, vol. 14, 2010, no. 2, pp. 68-74.

  • BOWLBY, J. Attachment. Attachment and Loss. Vol. I. London: Hogarth, 1969.

  • FRALEY, R C., WALLER, N. G., BRENNAN, K. A.: An item-response theory analysis of self report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 78, 2000, no. 2, pp. 350-356.

  • DEL GIUDICE, M.: Sex Differences In Romantic Attachment: A Meta-Analysis. In Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 37, 2011, no. 2, pp. 193-214.

  • DVORSKÁ, L.: Vztah mezi citovou vazbou v romantických vztazích a strategiemi zvládání v adolescence. In: Heller, D. Charvát, M. Sobotková, I. (Eds.) Psychologické dny 2008: Já & my a oni. Brno: VšpS MU a ČMPS, pp. 10

  • HERETIK, A., jr. - HERETIK, A., sr. - NOVOTNÝ, V. - PEČEŇÁK, J. - RITOMSKÝ, A.: Úzkostlivosť a zvládacie stratégie: analýza výsledkov zo štúdie EPIA. (Trait-Anxiety and coping strategies: Analysis of result based on EPIA study). In Psychologica 39 (CD ROM). Bratislava : Stimul, 2008, pp. 256-265.

  • KOSKINA, N. - GIOVAZOLIAS, T.: The Effect of Attachment Insecurity in the Development of Eating Disturbances across Gender: The Role of Body Dissatisfaction. In The Journal of Psychology, vol. 144, 2010, no. 5, pp.449-471.

  • LAZARUS, R. S.: Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1966.

  • MIKULINCER, M. - SHAVER, P. R.: Attachment in Adulthood Structure, Dynamics, and Change. New York: Guilford Press, 2007.

  • NOVOTNÝ, V. - HERETIK, A., sr. - HERETIK, A., jr. - PEČEŇÁK, J. - RITOMSKÝ, A.: EPIA - Epidemiológia vybraných úzkostných porúch na Slovensku. (EPIA - Epidemiology of Selected Anxiety Disorders in Slovakia). Nové Zámky: Psychoprof, 2006.

  • PICARDI, A. - CAROPPO, E. - TONY, A. - BITETTI, D. - Di MARIA, G.: Stability of Attachment-Related Anxiety, Avoidance and Their Relationship with Five- Factor Model and Psychobiological Model of Personality. In Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, vol. 78, 2005, pp. 327-345.

  • ROZVADSKÝ GUGOVÁ, G.: Coping Strategies in Conflict Situations (Anxiety and Avoidance). In University Review, Health Care, vol. 4, 2010, no. 54, p. 54.

  • TSAGARAKIS, M. - KAFETSIOS, K. - STALIKAS, A.: Reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-R) measure of adult attachment. In European Journal of Psychological Assessment, vol. 23, 2007, pp. 47-55.

  • YOUNG-SUN, L. - GROSSMAN, J. - KRISHNAN, A.: Cultural Relevance of Adult Attachment: Rasch Modeling of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships in a Korean Sample. In Educational & Psychological Measurement, vol. 68, 2008, 5, pp. 824-844.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 37 37 32
PDF Downloads 7 7 6