Influence of the Techniques and Degrees of Ripeness on the Nutritional Qualities and Carotenoid Profiles of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum).

Open access


Tomato is a significant vegetable crop with numerous health benefits derived from its carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrients contents. This work studies the nutritional qualities and carotenoids contents of five different cultivars of tomatoes (San Marz, Nasmata, Roma VF, Ogbomoso local and 4-lobes). The variations of pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, total solid, lycopene and beta-carotene contents of these tomatoes were investigated under ambient temperature and field ripening techniques and the mean values of these parameters investigated at different ripening stages and techniques were compared. Lycopene contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tomatoes subjected to field ripening compared with those ripened under ambient temperature. The highest lycopene content (17.18 μg/g) was observed in Roma VF cultivar at fully-ripe stage under field ripening technique while the lowest value (0.64 μg/g) was in 4-lobes cultivar at semi-ripe stage under ambient temperature ripening. Similar trend was observed in the variation of betacarotene (a pro-Vitamin A index) among the tomato cultivars. The evaluated reducing sugar contents (ranging from 1.84 to 5.23 μg/g) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fully-ripe tomatoes compared to semi-ripe ones under field ripening and the trend was reversed for some cultivars under ambient temperature ripening. The titratable acidities of the tomatoes were significantly higher at the semi-ripe stage (0.24 to 0.38 %) under field ripening than those obtained under ambient temperature ripening (0.15 to 0.25 %). The pH of the tomatoes ranged from 3.58 to 4.07 and 3.46 to 5.40 under field and ambient temperature ripening, respectively, and the higher pH values obtained under ambient temperature ripening condition could make such tomatoes unsuitable in tomato processing plants. Consumption of tomatoes for the purpose of dietary antioxidant lycopene and pro-Vitamin A could maximally be achieved at fully-ripe stage under field ripening condition.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdul-Hammed M. Bello I.A. Oladoye S.O. 2013 Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extract of tomatoes papaya and orange juice. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences 56 (2): 90-97.

  • Abdul-Hammed M. Bello I.A. Olajire A.A. 2009 Comparison of biochemical and physiological properties of Nigerian tomato fruits ripened under different conditions. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development 9 (9): 1859-1877.

  • Abdul-Hammed M. Ibrahim A.O. Kosoko A.R. 2012 Impact of ripening techniques on the biochemical and physiological changes in tomatoes (3-Lobes and Big-Local cultivars). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6 (9): 17-24.

  • Abdulnabi A.A. Emhemed A.H. Hussein G.D. Peter A.B. 1997 Determination of antioxidant vitamins in tomatoes. Food Chemistry 60 (2): 207-212.

  • Amiri-Rigi A. Abbasi S. 2016 Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants co-surfactants and pretreatments. Food Chemistry 197 (Part A): 1002-1007.

  • Ansari M.S. Gupta N.P. 2004 Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations 22 (5): 415-420.

  • Anthon G.E. LeStrange M. Barrett D.M. 2011 Changes in pH acids sugars and other quality parameters during extended vine holding of ripe processing tomatoes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91 (7): 1175-1181.

  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC 2005 Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Arlington Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

  • Baranska M. Schu W. Schulz H. 2006 Determination of lycopene and β-carotene content in tomato fruits and related products: Comparison of FT-Raman ATR-IR and NIR Spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry 78 (24): 8456-8461

  • Burton-Freeman B. Reimers K.J. 2011 Tomato consumption and health: Emerging benefits. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 5 (2): 182-191.

  • Cohen S. Itkin M. Yeselson Y. Tzuri G. Portnoy V. Harel-Baja R. Lev S. Sa'ar U. Davidovitz-Rikanati R. Baranes N. Bar E. Wolf D. Petreikov M. Shen S. Ben-Dor S. Rogachev I. Aharoni A. Ast I. Schuldiner M. et al. 2014 The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons. Nature Communications 5: 4026.

  • da Silva D.J.H. Abreu F.B. Caliman F.R.B. Antonio A.C. Patel V.B. 2008 In V.R. Preedy & Watson R.R. (Eds). Tomatoes and tomato products - Nutritional medicinal and therapeutic properties: Tomatoes - Origin Cultivation Techniques and Germplasm Resources (1st ed pp. 3-25). New Hampshire: Science Publishers 643p.

  • Davies J.N. Kempton R.J. 1975 Changes in the individual sugars of tomato fruit during ripening. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 26: 1103-1110.

  • Devasagayam T.P.A. Wener T. Ippendorf H. Martin H.D. Sies H. 1992 Synthetic carotenoids novel polyene polyketones and new absorbing isomers as efficient quencher of singlet molecular oxygen. Photochemistry and Photobiology 55 (4): 511-514.

  • Doris M. Gosselin A. Papadopoulos A.P. 2001 In J. Janick editor Horticultural Reviews: Greenhouse Tomato Fruit Quality (Volume 26 pp 239-319). Hoboken New Jersey: Wiley 368p.

  • Fawole A. Opara U.L. Theron K.I. 2012 Chemical and phytochemcial properties and antioxidant activities of pomegranate cultivars grown in South Africa. Food and Bioprocess Technology 5 (7): 2934-2940.

  • Fish W.W. 2012 Refinements of the attending equations for several spectral methods that provide improved quantification of β-carotene and/or lycopene in selected foods. Postharvest Biology and Technology 66 16-22.

  • Garande V.K. Patil R.S. 2014 Orange fruited tomato cultivars : Rich source of beta-carotene. Journal of Horticulture 1 (2): 1000108

  • Ibrahim M. Helali M.O.H. Alam A.K.M.S. Talukder D. Akhter S. 2017 Physiological and biochemical characteristics of different tomato grown in Rajshahi region of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 52 (3): 195-200.

  • Javanmardi J. Kubota C. 2006 Variation of lycopene antioxidant activity total soluble solids and weight loss of tomato during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 41 (2): 151-155.

  • Johnson R.R. Balwani T.L. Johnson L.J. Mcclure K.E. Dehority B.A. 1966 Corn plant maturity. II. Effect on in vitro cellulose digestibility and soluble carbohydrate content. Journal of Animal Science 25 (3): 612-623.

  • Kader A.A. 1978 Influence of pre-harvest and postharvest environment on nutritional composition of fruits and vegetables. In: Proceeding of the 1st International Symposium of Horticulture & Human Health. ASHS Symposium Series. pp. 18-32.

  • Kahlaoui B. Hachicha M. Misle E. Fidalgo F. Teixeira J. 2018 Physiological and biochemical responses to the exogenous application of proline of tomato plants irrigated with saline water. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 17 (1): 17-23.

  • Kaur D. Sharma R. Wani A.A. Singh B. Sogi D.S. 2006 Physicochemical changes in seven tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars during ripening. International Journal of Food Properties 9 (4): 747-751.

  • Kidmose U. Edelenbos M. Christensen L.P. Hegelund E. 2005 Chromatographic determination of changes in pigments in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) during processing. Journal of Chromatographic Science 43 (9): 466-472.

  • Opara U.L. Al-Ani M. 2010 Antioxidant contents of prepacked freshcut versus whole fruit and vegetables. British Food Journal 112 (8): 797-810.

  • Patrick L. 2000 Beta-carotene: the controversy continues. Alternative Medicine Review 5 (6): 530-545.

  • Perkins-Veazie P. Collins J.K. Pair S.D. Roberts W. 2001 Lycopene content differs among red-fleshed watermelon cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81 (10): 983-987.

  • Raffo A. Leonardi C. Fogliano V. Ambrosino P. Salucci M. Gennaro L. Bugianesi R. Giuffrida F. Quaglia G.J. 2002 Nutritional value of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Cv. Naomi F1) harvested at different ripening stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (22): 6550-6556.

  • Raiola A. Rigano M.M. Calafiore R. Frusciante L. Barone A. 2014 Enhancing the health-promoting effects of tomato fruit for biofortified food. Mediators of Inflammation 2014; ID 139873 (1-16).

  • Rao A.V. Zeeshan W. Sanjiv A. 1998 Lycopene content of tomatoes and tomato products and their contribution to dietary lycopene. Food Research International 31 (10): 737-741.

  • Shankara N. Joep VanLidt J. Marjade G. Martin H. Barbara V. 2005 Cultivation production processing and marketing of tomato. Wageningen The Netherlands: Agromisa Foundation 92p.

  • Slimestad R. Verheul M. 2009 Review of flavonoids and other phenolics from fruits of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89 (8): 1255-1270.

  • Stahl W. Sies H.. 2003 Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24 (6): 345-351.

  • Suárez M.H. Rodríguez-Rodríguez E.M. Romero C.D. 2008 Chemical composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) from Tenerife the Canary Islands. Food Chemistry 106 (3): 1046-1056.

  • Wang X.D. Russell R.M. 1999 Procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of beta-carotene Nutrition Reviews 57 (9): 263-272.

  • Yelle S. Hewitt J.D. Robinson N.L. Damon S. Bennett A.B. 1988 Sink metabolism in tomato fruit: III. Analysis of carbohydrate assimilation in a wild species Plant Physiology 87 (3): 737-740.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 171 171 8
PDF Downloads 102 102 6