Assessment of Environmental Factors on Secondary Metabolites and Toxicological Effects of Datura metel Leaves Extracts

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This study evaluated the chemical composition, physicochemical properties, toxicological and environmental potentials of the Datura metel (D. metel) leaves extracts. Fresh leaves of D. metel were harvested at three different times of the day (morning, afternoon and evening), extraction done in succession using n-hexane and ethanol solvents respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis for specific gravity, pH, colour, total ash and moisture contents of the dried extracts were determined. The characterisation of the bioactive compounds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, showed the presence of different compounds at the three different times of the day, out of which phytol and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid were present at all times. These results confirmed that some bioactive compounds present in this plant are dependent on environmental factor , time of harvest and the choice of solvent used while the presence of others are independent on these factors. Each extract was administered orally to Wistar rats for two weeks. There were significant difference (p < 0.05) in activities of AST (serum and heart), ALT (liver and serum) and ALP (Serum, liver and kidney), as well as the concentrations of albumin and protein in the liver and serum and urea in the serum of experimental rats given n-hexane and ethanolic extracts of D. metel. Generally it also suggest that the leaf extracts collected at three different times of the day had some significant toxicological effect, thus may not be totally safe for consumption at the dosage indicated since tissues membranes integrity of the Wistar rats were not potentially preserved.

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