Haematological and Genotoxicity Evaluations of Phytochemical Compounds from n-Hexane Extract of Uvaria chamae Stem on Selected Organs in Mice

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Abstract

Phytochemical constituents of plants extracts have been well investigated as leads for drug discovery and development. However, aside their immense medicinal properties, their safety is also of paramount importance, therefore evaluating the toxicity of plants extracts and their phytochemicals is an important aspect of quality measures to meet the requirements for consumption.This study was done to identify the volatile phytochemical compounds present in n-hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems (UCSH) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate the effects of this non-polar extract on DNA using diphenylamine (DPA) and agarose gel electrophoresis assays, also to investigate the haematological parameters using an auto Haematology Analyzer.The GC-MS analysis of UCSH identified some compounds which include; squalene, lupeol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and Benzyl benzoate with excellent medicinal properties. Genotoxicity assays results showed significant reductions in DNA fragmentation in liver and testis cells of mice as against the DNA biomarker and vehicle control group. Haematological results showed significant increase in white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), platelets (PLT) and lymphocytes (LYMP) but significant reduction in mean corpuscular - volume (MCV), haemoglobin (MCH), and haemoglobin concentration (MCHC).The present study showed that the phytochemicals present in the n-Hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems may play protective role in the genomic DNA of liver and testis tissues and also may induce hematological changes which may enhance the immune system.

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