Effects of Modifying Agents on the Dyeability of Cotton Fabric using Malachite Green Dye

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Changes in thermodynamic parameters as a result of modifying agents on dye uptake of cotton fabric using malachite green (MG) dye was investigated in this study. Five modifying agents {Acetic acid (CH3COOH), hydrated Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3.10H2O), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)} were used on cotton fabric. The equilibrium exhaustions (%E) were determined before and after modification of the cotton fabric at different concentrations which were 88.24%, 80%, 77.14%, 65.10% and 30.88% for CH3COOH, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, Na2CO3.10H2O and H2O2 respectively. The results also showed a correlation between the standard affinity(-Δμθ) of dye on cotton fabric and the equilibrium exhaustion. The values of entropy (ΔSθ) and enthalpy (ΔHθ) change revealed the feasibility (spontaneity) and exothermic nature of the reaction. The optimum parameters were attained in acidic solution (CH3COOH) at the highest temperature (70 °C) of dyeing as it showed the highest % efficiency of 88.24%. This work established that modification of cotton fabric with modifying agents is one of the best route to improve the affinity between dye and fabric as it reduces stress, amount of dyes wasted in dyeing, time required to achieve satisfactory results leading to a cost effective environmental friendly approach in the field of cotton dyeing.

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