Assessment of oral mucositis degree due to cytostatic treatment in patients with malignant lymphomas

Adrian Muica 1 , Florentin-Daniel Berneanu 1 , Liana Hănțoiu 1 , Dorner Kinga 1 ,  and Adriana-Elena Crăciun 1
  • 1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania

Abstract

Introduction: Oral mucositis characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa, ulcers, angular cheilitis, accompanied by pain in the maxillary facial area are symptoms of patients who have undergone cytostatic treatment, affecting over 75% of high-risk patients.

Material and methods: From the total of 182 patients with hematological malignancies, we selected 59 patients, diagnosed with malignant lymphomas and treated at the Hematology Department of the Medical Clinic 1 in Tîrgu Mureș, between July 2013 and June 2016, analyzing the data in the data observation sheets. The study is a retrospective one.

Results: In the group of patients studied, who were treated based on the aforementioned cytostatic plans, we found that the CVP + Rituximab plan frequently causes 1st and 2nd class stomatitis, with no patients with 3rd and 4th class stomatitis. The CHOP + Rituximab therapy plan in a total of 80 applications had complications of 1st and 2nd class stomatitis, much more frequent 1st class without stomatitis of 2nd and 4th degree. Grade III stomatitis occurs in two cases in the CHOP-Bleo belts. Introducing dental medicine in the context of medical multidisciplinarity in oncology hematology is a real necessity because the oral complications of chemotherapy treatments by their severity can lead to compromise of the treatment protocol by reducing the doses or even stopping the treatment

Conclusions: Malignant hemopathies represent a significant percentage in dental disorders, and among them, the maximum severity belongs to the non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin malignant lymphomas. Stomatitis, also called gingivotoxic stomatitis caused by medication, is an acute oral complication, with erythema and edema of the entire oral cavity. The role of the dentist in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of oral lesions, following the cytostatic therapy, is extremely important.

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