Fighting in women’s clothes The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33

Open access

Abstract

Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.

VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

VII.1. Primary sources

VII.2. Secondary Literature

  • Anthore Baptiste, Soline and Baptiste, Nicolas, “Constriction – Construction, a short history of specialised wearing apparel for athletic activities from the fourteenth century to nineteenth century”, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5/2 (2017), 73-95.

  • Binard, Fanny and Jaquet, Daniel, “Investigation on the collation of the first Fight book (Leeds, Royal Armouries, Ms I.33)”, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 4/1 (2016), 3-22.

  • Braunfels, Wolfgang, ed., Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Bd. 8. Ikonographie der Heiligen Meletius bis zweiundvierzig Märtyrer (Rome, Freiburg, Basel, Wien: Herder Verlag, 1976).

  • Bravo, Guiseppe A. and Trupke, Juliana, 100 000 Jahre Leder. Eine Monographie (Basel, Stuttgart: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1970).

  • Cinato, Franck, Development, “Diffusion and Reception of the “Buckler Play”: A Case Study of a Fighting Art in the Making”, in Jaquet, Daniel, Verelst, Karin and Dawson, Timothy, eds., Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books. Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe (14th–17th Centuries) (Leiden: Brill, 2016), pp. 481-546.

  • Crowfoot, Elisabeth, Pritchard, Frances, Staniland, Kay, Textiles and Clothing 1150-1450. Medieval finds from excavations in London: 4 (London: Boydell Press, 2001²).

  • De Dillmont, Thérèse, Encyklopaedie der weiblichen Handarbeiten (Dornach/Elsass 1893).

  • Forgeng, Jeffrey L., “Introduction. Royal Armouries MS. I.33”, in Forgeng, Jeffrey L., ed., The Medieval Art of Swordmanship. A Facsimile and Translation of Europe’s Oldest Personal Combat Treatise. Royal Armouries MS I.33 (Union City: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2003).

  • Fransen, Lilli, Nørgaard, Anna and Østergård, Else, Medieval garments reconstructed. Norse clothing patterns (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2011).

  • Gräf, Julia, Lederfunde der Vorrömischen Eisenzeit und Römischen Kaiserzeit aus Nordwestdeutschland (Rahden/Westfalen: Verlag Marie Leidorf, 2015).

  • Groenman-van Waateringe, Willy and Velt, L. M., “Schuhmode im späten Mittelalter, Funde und Abbildungen”, Zeitschrift für Archäologie des Mittelalters 3 (1975), 95-119.

  • Hegenauer, Hans, Fachkunde für lederverarbeitende Berufe (Essen: Verlag Ernst Heyer, 20018).

  • Kania, Katrin, Kleidung im Mittelalter. Materialien – Konstruktion – Nähtechnik. Ein Handbuch (Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau Verlag, 2010).

  • Lutterloh, Maria Aloisia, Der Goldene Schnitt (Lindau/Bodensee: Verlag Lutterloh-Lindau, circa 1949).

  • Østergård, Else, Woven into the Earth. Textiles from Norse Greenland (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2004).

  • Redwood, Mike, Gloves and Glove-making (Oxford, New York: Shire Publications, 2016).

  • Schnack, Christiane, Die mittelalterlichen Schuhe aus Schleswig Ausgrabung Schild 1971-1975. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig. (Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag, 1992).

  • Schnack, Christiane, Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Konstanz (Grabung Fischmarkt) (Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag, 1994).

  • Volken, Marquita, Archaeological Footwear. Development of shoe patterns and styles from Prehistory till the 1600’s (Zwolle: SPA Uitgevers, 2014).

  • Volken, Marquita, “Arming shoes of the fifteenth century”, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5/2 (2017), 25-45

  • Willemsen, Annemarieke, Honderden… Van Hand tot Hand. Handschoen en wanten in de Nederlanden voor 1700 (Zwolle: SPA Uitgevers, 2015).

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 305 305 305
PDF Downloads 116 116 116