Preliminary in vitro screening of the antibacterial activity of leaf extracts from various Ficus species (Moraceae) against Yersinia ruckeri

Open access


Remarkable progress in the field of antibacterial herbal therapy has been made in recent decades in response to the development of drug-resistant pathogens in aquaculture. Studies have focused on the in vitro antimicrobial activity screening of ethanolic extracts of various plants belonging to the genus Ficus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of various Ficus species against Yersinia ruckeri. In vitro tests for antibacterial activity revealed that ethanolic leaf extracts of various Ficus species and their cultivars offer a promising alternative to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for controlling the growth of Y. ruckeri. In our study, ethanolic extracts obtained from leaves of F. natalensis subsp. leprieurii and F. macrophylla proved effective against a bacterial strain at a dose of 400 pl standardized inoculum (108 CFU ml−1). It should be noted that Y. ruckeri demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to more extracts derived from the leaves of Ficus species. Our investigation showed that among the various Ficus species, ethanolic leaf extracts of ten Ficus species against Y. ruckeri were the most effective. The effect of the leaf extracts that expressed the highest antimicrobial activity (F. macrophylla, F. natalensis subsp. leprieurii) against Y. ruckeri was comparable to that of gentamicin. Therefore, preliminary screening indicated that the ethanolic leaf extracts of some Ficus species with antibacterial properties can be used in aquaculture as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against fish pathogens, including Y. ruckeri.

Abouzeed Y.M., Elfahem A., Zgheel F., Ahmed M.O. 2013 - Antibacterial In-Vitro Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus from Libyan Environment - J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol. 3: 194.

Al Laham S.A., Al Fadel F.M. 2014 - Antibacterial activity of various plants extracts against antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophyla - Jundishapur J. Microbiol. 7: 1-7.

Ali M., Chaudhary N. 2011 - Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties - Pharmacogn. Rev. 5: 96-102.

Atindehou K.K., Koné M., Terreaux C., Traore D., Hostettmann K., Dosso M. 2002 - Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants from the Ivory Coast - Phytother. Res. 16: 497-502.

Badgujar S.B., Patel V.V., Bandivdekar A.H., Mahajan R.T. 2014 - Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Ficus carica: a review - Pharm. Biol. 52: 1487-1503.

Barnes A.C. 2011 - Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) (Yersinia ruckeri) - In: Fish Diseases and Disorders, Volume 3: Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections (Eds) P.T.K. Woo, D.W. Bruno, MPG Books Group, UK.

Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M., Sherris J.C., Turck M. 1966 - Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method - Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45: 493-496.

Birinci Yildirim A., Turker H. 2018 - Antibacterial activity of some aromatic plant essential oils against fish pathogenic bacteria - LimnoFish. 4: 67-74.

Borges A., Abreu A.C., Dias C., Saavedra M.J., Borges F., Simoes M. 2016 - New perspectives on the use of phytochemicals as an emergent strategy to control bacterial infections including biofilms - Molecules 21: 877.

Bortolus A. 2008 - Error cascades in the biological sciences: the unwanted consequences of using bad taxonomy in ecology - Ambio 37: 114-118.

Brummit R.K., Powell C.E.P. 1992 - Authors of plant names. A list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations - Royal Botanic Garden Kew, London, 732 p.

Bunawan H., Amin N.M., Bunawan S.N., Baharum S.N., Mohd Noor N. 2014 - Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance - Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014:902734.

Caruso G. 2016 - Antibiotic Resistance in Fish Farming Environments: A Global Concern - Journal of, 10: 9-13.

Cheng J.-Y., Guan, M., Zhu, J.-L., Wang, C.-T., Su L., Zhang X.-J. 2014 - Facile and material-independent fabrication of poly(luteolin) coatings and their unimpaired antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus after steam sterilization treatments - Polym. Chem. 5: 4211-4214.

Cibrian-Jaramillo A., Hird A., Oleas N., Ma H., Meerow A.W., Francisco-Ortega J., Griffith M.P. 2013 - What is the conservation value of a plant in a botanic garden? Using indicators to improve management of ex-situ collections - Bot. Rev. 79: 559-577.

Cowan M.M. 1999 - Plant products as antimicrobial agents - Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-582.

Cushnie T.P., Lamb A.J. 2005 - Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids - Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 26: 343-356.

Daglia M. 2012 - Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents - Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 23: 174-181.

Dangarembizi R., Erlwanger K.H., Moyo D., Chivandi E. 2012 - Phytochemistry, pharmacology and ethnomedicinal uses of Ficus thonningii (Blume Moraceae): a review - Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 10: 203-212.

Ewing W.H., Ross A.J., Brenner D.J., Fanning G.R. 1978 - Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov. Redmouth (RM) Bacterium - Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 37-44.

Ghosh B., Nguyen T.D., Crosbie P.B., Nowak B.F., Bridle A.R. 2016 - Oral vaccination of first-feeding Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., confers greater protection against yersiniosis than immersion vaccination - Vaccine 34: 599-608.

Khameneh B., Iranshahy M., Ghandadi M., Ghoochi Atashbeyk D., Fazly Bazzaz B.S., Iranshahi M. 2015 - Investigation of the antibacterial activity and efflux pump inhibitory effect of co-loaded piperine and gentamicin nanoliposomes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 41: 989-994.

Kocwowa E. 1981 - Exercises in general microbiology - Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa: 78-85 (in Polish).

Kumar G., Menanteau-Ledouble S., Saleh M., El-Matbouli M. 2015 - Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in fish - Vet. Res. 46: 103.

Lansky E.P., Paavilainen H.M. 2011 - Figs: the genus Ficus - In: Traditional herbal medicines for modern times, Vol. 9 (ed.) R. Hardman, CRC Press, Boca Raton: 1-357.

Madhuri S., Mandloi A.K., Pandey Govind, Sahni Y.P. 2012 - Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against fish pathogens - Int. Res. J. Pharm. 3: 28-30.

Majumder P., Paridhavi M. 2013 - An ethno-phytochemical and pharmacological review on novel Indian medicinal plants used in herbal formulations - Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5: 74-83.

Mousa O., Vuorela P., Kiviranta J., Wahab S.A., Hiltunen R., Vuorela H. 1994 - Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species - J. Ethnopharmacol. 41: 71-76.

Nabavi S.M., Marchese A., Izadi M., Curti V., Daglia M., Nabavi S.F. 2015 - Plants belonging to the genus Thymus as antibacterial agents: from farm to pharmacy - Food Chem. 173: 339-347.

Nair R., Chanda S. 2006 - Activity of some medicinal plants against certain pathogenic bacterial strains - Indian J. Pharmacol. 38: 142-144.

Nair R., Chanda S.V. 2007 - Antibacterial activities of some medicinal plants of the western region of India - Turk. J. Biol. 31: 231-236.

Okoth D.A., Chenia H.Y., Koorbanally N.A. 2013 - Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of flavonoids from Lannea alata (Engl.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae) - Phytochem. Lett. 6: 476-481.

Ormsby M.J., Caws T., Burchmore R., Wallis T., Verner-Jeffreys D.W., Davies R.L. 2016 - Yersinia ruckeri isolates recovered from diseased Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland are more diverse than those from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and represent distinct sub-populations - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82: 5785-5794.

Padmanabhan P., Jangle S.N. 2012 - Evaluation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of herbal preparation, a combination of four medicinal plants - Int. J. App. Basic Med. Res. 2: 109-116.

Pękala A., Antychowicz J. 2010 - Yersiniosis of salmonids - epizootiology of the disease and methods of its elimination - Med. Weter. 66: 374-377 (in Polish).

Reverter M., Bontemps N., Lecchini D., Banaigs B., Sasal P. 2014 - Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: Current status and future perspectives - Aquaculture 433: 50-61.

Romero J., Feijoó C.G., Navarrete P. 2012 - Antibiotics in Aquaculture-Use, Abuse, and Alternatives - In: Health and Environment in Aquaculture (Eds) E.D. Carvalho, G.S. David, R.J. Silva, InTech Open 6: 159-198.

Salem M.Z.M., Salem A.Z.M., Camacho L.M., Ali H.M. 2013 - Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical composition of extracts of Ficus species: An overview - Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 7: 4207-4219.

Sosnovskiy Y.V. 2014 - Taksonomic diversity of Ficus L. (Moraceae Link) in collections of botanical gardens in Ukraine - Biolohichni studiyi 8(2): 197-216 (in Ukrainian).

Tkachenko H., Buyun L., Terech-Majewska E., Osadowski Z. 2016 - Antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extracts obtained from various Ficus species (Moraceae) against the fish pathogen, Citrobacter freundii - Balt. Coast. Zone 20: 117-136.

Tkachenko H., Buyun L., Terech-Majewska E., Osadowski Z. 2016 - In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila - Arch. Pol. Fish. 24: 219-230.

Tkachenko H., Buyun L., Terech-Majewska E., Osadowski Z., Honcharenko V., Prokopiv A. 2016 - Anti-Pseudomonas fluorescens efficacy of ethanolic extracts derived from the leaves of various Ficus species (Moraceae) - Słupskie Prace Biologiczne 13: 295-316.

Tkachenko H., Buyun L., Terech-Majewska E., Osadowski Z., Sosnovskyi Y., Honcharenko V., Prokopiv A. 2016 - The antimicrobial activity of some ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against Aeromonas hydrophila - Trudy VNIRO 162: 172-183.

Tkachenko H., Buyun L., Terech-Majewska E., Osadowski Z., Sosnovskyi Y., Honcharenko V., Prokopiv A. 2016 - In vitro antibacterial efficacy of various ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen, Pseudomonas fluorescens - In: Globalisation and regional environment protection. Technique, technology, ecology (Eds) T. Noch, W. Mikołajczewska, A. Wesołowska. Gdańsk, Gdańsk High School Publ.: 265-286.

Turker H., Yildinm A.B. 2015 - Screening for antibacterial activity of some Turkish plants against fish pathogens: a possible alternative in the treatment of bacterial infections - Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 29: 281-288.

Van Hai N. 2015 - The use of medicinal plants as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review - Aquaculture 446: 88-96.

Vital P.G., Velasco R.N.Jr., Demigillo J.M., Rivera W.L. 2010 - Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Ficus septica Burm and Sterculia foetida L. leaf extracts - J. Med. Plants Res. 4: 58-63.

Whitman K.A., MacNair N.G. 2004 - Finfish and shellfish bacteriology manual: techniques and procedures - Blackwell Publishing Company, Iowa, USA.

Yang C., Chowdhury M.A., Huo Y., Gong J. 2015 - Phytogenic compounds as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics: potentials and challenges in application - Pathogens 4: 137-156.

Fisheries & Aquatic Life

The Journal of Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.204
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.493


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 142 142 142
PDF Downloads 18 18 18