The developmental pathways of the offspring of three groups of trout, Salmo trutta L., with known life histories were compared: one group from a freshwater resident population and two groups from an anadromous population (fish that have smoltified and fish that have not). The fish were hybridized within a group, and 27 families were obtained and reared mixed in two tanks. Tracking fish specimens was possible thanks to individual passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging. All families followed different life pathways. Faster growth favored early smoltification and maturation at the age of 1+ in males that had not smoltified. In addition, both processes were clearly also influenced by inherited factors. Fish of freshwater resident origin smoltified more infrequently, and males matured earlier than did fish from the migratory population. The offspring of parents from the migratory population, which did smoltify during their individual histories, smoltified early (in the second year) more often than offspring of non-smoltified members of the population.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ayllón F. Davaine P. Beall E. Garcia-Vazquez E. 2006 - Dispersal and rapid evolution in brown trout colonizing virgin Subantarctic ecosystems - J. Evol. Biol. 19:1352-1358.
Bailey J.K. Friars G.W. 1990 - Inheritance of age at smolting in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Aquaculture 85: 317.
Berglund I. 1995 - Effects of size and spring growth on sexual maturation in 1+ Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) male parr: interactions with smoltification - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 2682-2694.
Birt T.P. Green J.M. Davidson W.S. 1991 - Contrasts in the development and smolting of genetically distinct anadromous and nonanadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar - Can. J. Zool. 69: 2075-2084.
Bohlin T. Dellefors C. Faremo U. 1994 - Probability of first sexual maturation of male parr in wild sea- run brown trout (Salmo trutta) depends on condition factor 1 yr in advance - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.51: 1920-1926.
Charles K. Guyomard R. Hoyheim B. Ombredane D. Bagliniere J.L. 2005 - Lack of genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Normandy population - Aquat. Living Resour. 18: 65-69.
Charles K. Roussel J.M. Lebel J.M. Bagliniere J.L. Ombredane D. 2006 - Genetic differentiation between anadromous and freshwater resident brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.): insights obtained from stable isotope analysis - Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15: 255-263.
Cucherousset J. Ombredane D. Charles K. Marchand F. Bagliniere J.L. 2005 - A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62: 1600-1610.
Dȩbowski P. 2002 - Smoltification and maturity of sea trout Salmo trutta m. trutta L. in a hatchery - Arch. Pol. Fish. 10 (Suppl. 1): 5-72.
Dȩbowski P. Robak S. Dobosz S. 1999 - Estimation of smoltification of hatchery-reared sea trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta L.) based on body morphology - Arch. Pol. Fish. 7: 257-266.
Dellefors C. Faremo U. 1988 - Early sexual maturation in males of wild sea trout Salmo trutta L. inhibits smoltification - J. Fish Biol. 33: 741-749.
Duston J. Astatkie T. MacIsaac P.F. 2005 - Genetic influence of parr versus anadromous sires on the life histories of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62: 2067-2075.
Elliott J.M. 1994 - Quantitative ecology and the brown trout - Oxford University Press New York.
Fahy E. 1978 - Variation in some biological characteristics of British sea trout Salmo trutta L. - J. Fish Biol. 13:123-138.
Frost W.E. Brown M.E. 1967 - The trout - Collins London England.
Hansen L.P. Jonsson B. Morgan R.I.G. Thorpe J.E. 1989 - Influence of parr maturity on emigration of smolting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 410-415.
Heath D.D. Devlin R.H. Heath J.W. Iwama G.K. 1994 - Genetic environmental and interaction effects on the incidence of jacking in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) - Heredity 72: 146-154.
Heath D.D. Bettles C.M. Jamieson S. Stasiak I. Docker M.F. 2008 - Genetic Differentiation among Sympatric Migratory and Resident Life History Forms of Rainbow Trout in British Columbia - Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 137:1268-1277.
Herbinger C.M. Newkirk G.F. 1990 - Sources of family variability for maturation incidence in cultivated Atlantic salmon - Aquaculture 85: 153-162.
Hindar K. Jonsson B. Ryman N. Ståhl G. 1991 - Genetic relationships among landlocked resident and anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. - Heredity 66: 83-91.
Jonsson B. 1982 - Diadromous and resident trout Salmo trutta: is their difference due to genetics? - Oikos 38:297-300.
Jonsson B. 1985 - Life history patterns of freshwater resident and sea-run migrant brown trout in Norway - Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114: 182-194.
Kallio-Nyberg I. Koljonen M.L. 1997 - The genetic consequence of hatchery-rearing on life-history traits of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a comparative analysis of sea-ranched salmon with wild and reared parents - Aquaculture 153: 207-224.
Kallio-Nyberg I. Saloniemi I. Koljonen M.L. 2007 - Effects of parental and smolt traits on the marine survival of released Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Aquaculture 272: 254-266.
Kallio-Nyberg I. Jutila E. Koljonen M.L. Koskiniemi J. Saloniemi I. 2010 - Can the lost migratory Salmo trutta stocks be compensated with resident trout stocks in coastal rivers? - Fish. Res. 102: 69-79.
Kazakov R.V. Kozlov V.V. 1985 - Quantitative estimation of degree of silvering displayed by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles originating from natural populations and from fish-rearing farms - Aquaculture 44: 213-220.
Klemetsen A. Amundsen P.A. Dempson J.B. Jonsson B. Jonsson N. O’Connell M.F. Mortensen E. 2003 - Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories - Ecol. Freshw. Fish 12: 1-59.
L’Abee-Lund J.H. Jonsson B. Jensen A. Sættem L. Heggberget T.G. Johnsen B. N_sje T.F. 1989 - Latitudinal variation in life-history characteristics of sea-run migrant brown trout Salmo trutta - J. Anim. Ecol. 58:525-542.
L’Abee-Lund J.H. Jensen A. Johnsen B. 1990 - Interpopulation variation in male parr maturation of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta ) in Norway - Can. J. Zool. 68: 1983-1987.
Mitans A.R. 1973 - Dwarf males and sex structure of a Baltic salmon Salmo salar L. population - J. Ichthyol. 2:192-197.
Näslund I. 1993 - Genetic and environmental influences on the migratory behaviour of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a Swedish stream - Information fr_n Sotvattenslaboratoriet Drottningholm 1: 43-54.
Nævdal G. 1983 - Genetic factors in connection with age at maturation - Aquaculture 33: 97-106.
Nicieza A.G. Braña F. Toledo M.M. 1991 - Development of length-bimodality and smolting in wild stocks of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. under different growth conditions - J. Fish Biol. 38: 509-523.
Paez D.J. Morrissey M. Bernatchez L. Dodson J.J. 2010 - The genetic basis of early-life morphological traits and their relation to alternative male reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon - J. Evol. Biol. 23: 757-768.
Paez D.J. Brisson-Bonenfant C. Rossignol O. Guderley H.E. Bernatchez L. Dodson J.J. 2011 - Alternative developmental pathways and the propensity to migrate: a case study in the Atlantic salmon - J. Evol. Biol. 24: 245-255.
Palm S. Ryman N. 1999 - Genetic basis of phenotypic differences between transplanted stocks of brown trout - Ecol. Freshw. Fish 8: 169-180.
Pettersson J.C.E. Hansen M.M. Bohlin T. 2001 - Does dispersal from landlocked trout explain the coexistence of resident and migratory trout females in a small stream? - J. Fish Biol. 58: 487-465.
Piche J. Hutchings J.A. Blanchard W. 2008 - Genetic variation in threshold reaction norms for alternative reproductive tactics in male Atlantic salmon Salmo salar - Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 275: 1571-1575.
Pineda H. Borrell Y.J. McCarthy I. Vazquez E. Sanchez J.A. Blanco G. 2003 - Timing of first feeding and life-history strategies in salmon: genetic data - Hereditas 139:41-48.
Refstie T. Steine T.A. Gjedrem T. 1977 - Selaction experiments with salmon. II. Proportion of Atlantic salmon smoltyfying at 1 year of age - Aquaculture 10: 231-242.
Rounsefell G.A. 1958 - Anadromy in North American Salmonidae - Fish. Bull. 131: 171-185.
Rowe D.K. Thorpe J.E. 1990 - Differences in growth between maturing and non-maturing male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr - J. Fish Biol. 36: 643-658.
Saunders R.L. Henderson E.B. Glebe B.D. 1982 - Precocious sexual maturation and smoltification in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Aquaculture 28:211-229.
Skrochowska S. 1969a - Migrations of the sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) and their crosses. Part III. Migrations to in and from the sea - Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 16: 149-180.
Skrochowska S. 1969b - Migrations of the sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) brown-trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) and their crosses. Part IV. General discussion of results - Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 16: 181-192.
Tanguy J.M. Ombredane D. Bagliniere J.L. Prunet P. 1994 - Aspects of parr-smolt transformation in anadromous and resident forms of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in comparison with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Aquaculture 121: 51-63.
Thorpe J.E. 1977 - Bimodal distribution of length of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under artifical rearing conditions - J. Fish Biol. 11: 175-184.
Thorpe J.E. 1989 - Developmental variation in salmonid populations - J. Fish Biol. 35 (Suppl. A): 295-303.
Thorpe J.E. 1990 - Variation in life-history strategy in salmonids - Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 32: 3-12.
Thorpe J.E. Morgan R.I.G. 1978 - Parental influence on growth rate smolting rate and survival in hatchery reared juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar - J. Fish Biol. 13:549-556.
Thorpe J.E. Morgan R.I.G. 1980 - Growth rate and smolting rate of progeny of male Atlantic salmon parr Salmo salar L. - J. Fish Biol. 17: 451-460.
Thorpe J.E. Talbot C. Villarreal C.A. 1982 - Bimodality of growth and smolting in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. - Aquaculture 28: 123-132.
Thorpe J.E. Morgan R.I.G. Talbot C. Miles M.S. 1983 - Inheritance of developmental rates in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. - Aquaculture 33: 119-128.
Whalen K.G. Parrish D.L. 1998 - Effect of maturation on parr growth and smolt recruitment of Atlantic salmon - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 79-86.