Role of morphometry in determining the feeding success of small freshwater fish species: Multivariate analysis of Amblypharyngodon mola, Puntius ticto, and Esomus danricus

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Abstract

Factor and multiple regression analysis were used to extract the morphometric variables that contributed to feeding success in three small freshwater fishes. Of the first two factors, factor 1, showed high loading of gut weight (GW), length of the upper (UJ), and lower jaws (LJ) in mola, Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton), and GW and vertical mouth opening (VMO) in punti, Puntius ticto (Hamilton). In darikana, Esomus danricus (Hamilton), GW, horizontal mouth opening (HMO), and VMO were highly loaded on factor 2. Gut length (GL) was closely associated withGWof all three species. Subsequently, variables with high loading on factors 1 or 2 were subjected to multiple regression analysis to observe their effect on feeding success, consideringGWas the dependent variable and the extracted variables as the independent variable. In A. mola, HMO and GL influenced GW, whereas in P. ticto, only GL determined GW in the fish. In E. danricus, GL, VMO, and HMO exerted a low effect on GW. Exceptionally, the present study suggested that feeding success in small fishes is largely determined by UJ, LJ, and GL or mouth openings.

References

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  • Chattopadhyay S. Nandi S. Saikia S.K. 2014 - Mouth morphometry and architecture of freshwater cat fish Mystus vittatus Bloch (1974) (Siluriformes Bagridae) in relation to its feeding habit - J. Sci. Res. 6: 169-174.

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  • Mondol M.R. Nahar D.A. Dewan S. Rahaman M. Jasmine S. Hossain Y. 2013 - Food and feeding habits of the Molacarplet Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamiton 1822) in rice field ecosystem with consideration of water quality parameters - Our Nature 11: 61-75.

  • Muschick M. Barluenga M. Salzburger W. Meyer A. 2011 - Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation - BMC Evol. Biol. 11: 116. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-116.

    • Crossref
  • Naguib S.A.A. Shabaka H.A.E.I. Ashour F. 2011 - Comparative histological and ultrastructural studies on the stomach of Schilbe mystus and the intestinal swelling of Labeo niloticus - J. Am. Sci. 7: 251-263.

  • Nandi S. Saikia S.K. 2015 - Size selective feeding on phytoplankton by two morphogroups of small freshwater fish Amblypharyngodon mola - J. Fish Biol. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12706.

    • Crossref
  • Nilsson P.A. Bronmark C. 2000 - Prey vulnerability to a gape-size limited predator: behavioural and morphological impacts on northern pike piscivory - Oikos 88: 539-546.

  • Pepin P. Robert D. Bouchard C. Dower J.F. Falardeau M. Fortier L. Jenkins G.P. Leclerc V. Levesque K. Llopiz J.K. Meekan M.G. Murphy H.M. Ringuette M. Sirois P. Sponaugle S. 2015 - Once upon a larva: revisiting the relationship between feeding success and growth in fish larvae - ICES J. Mar. Sci. 72: 359-373.

  • Piet G.J. 1998 - Ecomorphology of a size-structured tropical freshwater fish community - Environ. Biol. Fish. 51: 67-86.

  • Ponton D. Muller R. 1990 - Size of prey ingested by whitefish Coregonus sp. larvae. Are Coregonus larvae with gape-limited predators? - J. Fish Biol. 36: 67-72.

  • Ross S.T. 1986 - Resource partitioning in fish assemblages: a review of field studies - Copeia 1986: 352-388.

  • Santos A.B.I. Camilo F.L. Albieri R.J. Araujo F.G. 2011 - Morphological patterns of five fish species (four characiforms one perciform) in relation to feeding habits in a tropical reservoir in south-eastern Brazil - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2011: 1-5.

  • Sebastian H. Inasu N.D. Tharakan J. 2011 - Comparative study of the mouth morphology and diet of three co-occurring species of sliverbellies along the Kerala coast - J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 53: 196-201.

  • Sen T.K. 1985 - Records of the Zoological Survey of India - Zoological Survey of India Calcutta India.

  • Talwar P.K. Jhingran A.G. 2001 - Inland Fisheries of India and Adjacent Countries - Oxford and IBH New Delhi India.

  • Truemper H.A. Lauer T.E. 2005 - Gape limitation and piscine prey size-selection by yellow perch in the extreme southern area of Lake Michigan with emphasis on two exotic prey items - J. Fish Biol. 66: 135-149.

  • Wainwright P.C. Richard B.A. 1995 - Predicting patterns of prey use from morphology of fishes - Environ. Biol. Fish. 44: 97-113.

  • Wikramanayake E.D. 1990 - Ecomorphology and biogeography of a tropical stream fish assemblage: evolution of assemblage structure - Ecology 71: 1756-1764.

  • Wimberger P.H. 1992 - Plasticity of fish body shape the effects of diet development family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae) - Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45: 197-218. 90

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  • Carroll A.M. Wainwright P.C. Huskey S.H. Collar D.C. Turingan R.G. 2004 - Morphology predicts suction feeding performance in centrachid fishes - J. Exp. Biol. 204: 3873-3881.

  • Chattopadhyay S. Nandi S. Saikia S.K. 2014 - Mouth morphometry and architecture of freshwater cat fish Mystus vittatus Bloch (1974) (Siluriformes Bagridae) in relation to its feeding habit - J. Sci. Res. 6: 169-174.

  • Conley W.J. Hopkins T.L. 2004 - Feeding ecology of Lanternfish (Pisces: Myctophidae) larvae: prey preferences as a reflection of morphology - B. Mar. Sci. 75: 361-379.

  • Dabrowski K. Bardega R. 1984 - Mouth size and predicted food size preferences of larvae of three cyprinid fish species - Aquaculture 40: 41-46.

  • Dasgupta M. 2000 - Adaptation of the alimentary tract to feeding habits in four species of fish of the genus Channa - Indian J. Fish. 47: 265- 269.

  • Dasgupta M. 2001 - Morphological adaptation of the alimentary canal of four Labeo species in relation to their food and feeding habits - Indian J. Fish. 48: 255-257.

  • Dean M.N. Motta P.J. 2004 - Feeding behavior and kinematics of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea) - Zoology 107: 171-189.

  • Erzini K. Goncalves J.M.S. Bentes L. Lino P.G. 1997 - Fish mouth dimensions and size selectivity in a Portuguese longline fishery - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 13: 41-44.

  • German D.P. Horn M.H. 2006 - Gut length and mass in herbivorous and carnivorous prickleback fish (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenic dietary and phylogenetic effects - Mar. Biol. 148: 1123-1134.

  • Gill A.B. Hart P.J.B. 1998 - Stomach capacity as a directing factor in prey size selection of three-spined stickleback - J. Fish Biol. 53: 897-900.

  • Gosch N.J.E. Pope K.L. Michaletz P.H. 2009 - Stomach capacities of six freshwater fishes - J. Freshw. Ecol. 24: 645-649.

  • Hugueny B. Pouilly M. 1999 - Morphological correlates of diet in an assemblage of West African freshwater fishes - J. Fish Biol. 54: 1310-1325.

  • Mahloch J.L. 1974 - Multivariate techniques for water quality analysis - J. Environ. Eng. Div. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng. 100: 1119-1132.

  • Makrakis M.C. Nakatani N. Bialetzki A. Gomess L.C. Sanchess P.V. Baumgartner G. 2008 - Relationship between gape size and feeding selectivity of fish larvae from a Neotropical reservoir - J. Fish Biol. 72: 1690-1707.

  • Mamun A. Tareq K.M.A. Azadi M.A. 2004 - Food and feeding habit of Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton) from Kaptai Reservoir Bangladesh - Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7: 584-588.

  • Mondol M.R. Nahar D.A. Dewan S. Rahaman M. Jasmine S. Hossain Y. 2013 - Food and feeding habits of the Molacarplet Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamiton 1822) in rice field ecosystem with consideration of water quality parameters - Our Nature 11: 61-75.

  • Muschick M. Barluenga M. Salzburger W. Meyer A. 2011 - Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation - BMC Evol. Biol. 11: 116. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-116.

    • Crossref
  • Naguib S.A.A. Shabaka H.A.E.I. Ashour F. 2011 - Comparative histological and ultrastructural studies on the stomach of Schilbe mystus and the intestinal swelling of Labeo niloticus - J. Am. Sci. 7: 251-263.

  • Nandi S. Saikia S.K. 2015 - Size selective feeding on phytoplankton by two morphogroups of small freshwater fish Amblypharyngodon mola - J. Fish Biol. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12706.

    • Crossref
  • Nilsson P.A. Bronmark C. 2000 - Prey vulnerability to a gape-size limited predator: behavioural and morphological impacts on northern pike piscivory - Oikos 88: 539-546.

  • Pepin P. Robert D. Bouchard C. Dower J.F. Falardeau M. Fortier L. Jenkins G.P. Leclerc V. Levesque K. Llopiz J.K. Meekan M.G. Murphy H.M. Ringuette M. Sirois P. Sponaugle S. 2015 - Once upon a larva: revisiting the relationship between feeding success and growth in fish larvae - ICES J. Mar. Sci. 72: 359-373.

  • Piet G.J. 1998 - Ecomorphology of a size-structured tropical freshwater fish community - Environ. Biol. Fish. 51: 67-86.

  • Ponton D. Muller R. 1990 - Size of prey ingested by whitefish Coregonus sp. larvae. Are Coregonus larvae with gape-limited predators? - J. Fish Biol. 36: 67-72.

  • Ross S.T. 1986 - Resource partitioning in fish assemblages: a review of field studies - Copeia 1986: 352-388.

  • Santos A.B.I. Camilo F.L. Albieri R.J. Araujo F.G. 2011 - Morphological patterns of five fish species (four characiforms one perciform) in relation to feeding habits in a tropical reservoir in south-eastern Brazil - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2011: 1-5.

  • Sebastian H. Inasu N.D. Tharakan J. 2011 - Comparative study of the mouth morphology and diet of three co-occurring species of sliverbellies along the Kerala coast - J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 53: 196-201.

  • Sen T.K. 1985 - Records of the Zoological Survey of India - Zoological Survey of India Calcutta India.

  • Talwar P.K. Jhingran A.G. 2001 - Inland Fisheries of India and Adjacent Countries - Oxford and IBH New Delhi India.

  • Truemper H.A. Lauer T.E. 2005 - Gape limitation and piscine prey size-selection by yellow perch in the extreme southern area of Lake Michigan with emphasis on two exotic prey items - J. Fish Biol. 66: 135-149.

  • Wainwright P.C. Richard B.A. 1995 - Predicting patterns of prey use from morphology of fishes - Environ. Biol. Fish. 44: 97-113.

  • Wikramanayake E.D. 1990 - Ecomorphology and biogeography of a tropical stream fish assemblage: evolution of assemblage structure - Ecology 71: 1756-1764.

  • Wimberger P.H. 1992 - Plasticity of fish body shape the effects of diet development family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae) - Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45: 197-218. 90

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