Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2) and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

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Abstract

In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg), T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1), T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1), T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1), T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1), T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1), T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1), T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1), T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1). One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC) were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM) was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

Abstract

In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg), T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1), T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1), T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1), T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1), T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1), T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1), T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1), T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1) + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1). One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC) were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM) was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

References

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  • Bai S.C., Le K.J. 1998 - Different levels of dietary DL-á-tocopheryl acetate affect the vitamin E status of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli - Aquaculture 161: 405-414.

  • Baker R.T.M., Davies S.J. 1996 - Oxidative nutritional stress associated with feeding rancid oils to African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and the protective role of á-tocopherol - Aquac. Res. 27: 795-803.

  • Blaxhall P.C., Daisley K.W. 1973 - Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood - J. Fish Biol. 5: 771-781.

  • Blazer V.S., Wolke R.E. 1984 - The effects of alpha-tocopherol on the immune response and non-specific resistance factors of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) - Aquaculture 37: 1-9.

  • Conklin D.E. 1989 - Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp - Advances in Tropical Aquaculture, Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, 20 Feb-4 Mar 1989.

  • De Andrade J.I., Ono EA., de Menezes G.C., Brasil EM., Roubach R., Urbinati E.C., Tavares-Dias M., Marcon J.L., Affonso E.G. 2007 - Influence of diets supplemented with vitamins C and E on pirarucu (Arpaima gigas) blood parameters - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol. 146: 576-580.

  • Drabkin D.R. 1945 - Crystallographic and optical properties of human hemoglobin: a proposal for the standardization of hemoglobin - Am. J. Med. Sci. 209: 268-270.

  • Flowers C.A., Kuizon M., Beard J.L., Skikne B.S., Covell M., Cook J.D. 1986 - A serum ferritin assay for prevalence studies of iron deficiency - Am. J. Hematol. 23: 141-151.

  • Gapasin R.S.J., Bombeo R., Lavens P., Sorgeloos P., Nelis H. 1998 - Enrichment of live food with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effects on milkfish (Chanos chanos) larval performance - Aquaculture 162: 269-286.

  • Halver J., Hardy R. 2002 - Fish Nutrition - Academic Press.

  • Ispir U., Yonar M.E., Oz O.B. 2011 - Effect of Dietary vitamin E supplementation on the blood parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 21: 566-569.

  • Kanazawa A. 1985 - Nutritional factors in fish reproduction - In: Reproduction and culture of milkfish (Eds) C.S. Lee, I.C.

  • Liao, The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, Hawaii: 115-125.

  • Kiron V., Puangkaew J., Ishizaka K., Satoh S., Watanabe T. 2004 - Antioxidant status and nonspecific immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed two levels of vitamin E along with three lipid sources - Aquaculture 234: 361-379.

  • Murai T., Andrews J.W. 1974 - Interactions of dietary alpha-tocopherol, oxidized menhaden oil and ethoxyquinon channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) - J. Nutr. 104: 1416-1431.

  • NRC 1993 - Nutrient Requirement of Fish - National Academy Press, Washington, DC, p. 114.

  • Pearce J., Harris J., Davies S. 2003 - The effect of vitamin E on the serum complement activity of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - Aquacult. Nut. 9: 337-340.

  • Poston H., Livingston D.L. 1969 - Effects of massive doses dietary vitamin E on fingerling brook trout - Fish. Res. Bull. 33: 9-12.

  • Racotta I.S., Palacios E., Hernández-Herrera R., Bonilla A., Pérez-Rostro C.I., Ramýì J.L. 2004 - Criteria for assessing larval and postlarval quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) - Aquaculture 233: 181-195.

  • Oehulka J., Minaoik B., Adamec V., Oehulkova E. 2005 - Investigations of physiological and pathological levels of total plasma protein in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - Aquac. Res. 36: 22-32.

  • Sahoo P.K., Mukherjee S.C. 2002 - Influence of fish dietary á-tocopherol intakes on specific immune response, non-specific immune resistance factors and disease resistance of healthy and aflatoxin B1-induced immunocompromised Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) - Aquacult. Nut. 8: 159-167.

  • Samocha T.M., Guajardo H., Lawrence AL., Castille F.L., Speed M., Mckee D.A., Page K.I. 1998 - A simple stress test for Penaeus vannamei postlarvae - Aquaculture 165: 233-242.

  • Santiago C.B., Gonzal A.C. 2000 - Effect of prepared diet and vitamins A, E and C supplementation on the reproductive performance of cage-reared bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 16: 8-13.

  • Wahli T., Verlhac V., Gabaudan J. 1998 - Influence of combined vitamins C and E on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - J. Fish Dis. 21: 127-137.

  • Watanabe T., Takashima F. 1977 - Effects of á-tocopherol deficiency on carp. Deficiency symptoms and changes in fatty acid and triglyceride distribution in adult carp - Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 43: 819-830. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2) and combinations of them on the hematological parameters... 111

Ansari M., Khodadadi M., Peyghan R., Raissy M. 2011 - Influence of biometric characteristics and gender on serum IgM in the Benni, Barbus sharpeyi Gunther, 1874 (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae) - J. Cell. Anim. Biol. 5: 105-108.

Bai S.C., Le K.J. 1998 - Different levels of dietary DL-á-tocopheryl acetate affect the vitamin E status of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli - Aquaculture 161: 405-414.

Baker R.T.M., Davies S.J. 1996 - Oxidative nutritional stress associated with feeding rancid oils to African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and the protective role of á-tocopherol - Aquac. Res. 27: 795-803.

Blaxhall P.C., Daisley K.W. 1973 - Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood - J. Fish Biol. 5: 771-781.

Blazer V.S., Wolke R.E. 1984 - The effects of alpha-tocopherol on the immune response and non-specific resistance factors of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) - Aquaculture 37: 1-9.

Conklin D.E. 1989 - Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp - Advances in Tropical Aquaculture, Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, 20 Feb-4 Mar 1989.

De Andrade J.I., Ono EA., de Menezes G.C., Brasil EM., Roubach R., Urbinati E.C., Tavares-Dias M., Marcon J.L., Affonso E.G. 2007 - Influence of diets supplemented with vitamins C and E on pirarucu (Arpaima gigas) blood parameters - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol. 146: 576-580.

Drabkin D.R. 1945 - Crystallographic and optical properties of human hemoglobin: a proposal for the standardization of hemoglobin - Am. J. Med. Sci. 209: 268-270.

Flowers C.A., Kuizon M., Beard J.L., Skikne B.S., Covell M., Cook J.D. 1986 - A serum ferritin assay for prevalence studies of iron deficiency - Am. J. Hematol. 23: 141-151.

Gapasin R.S.J., Bombeo R., Lavens P., Sorgeloos P., Nelis H. 1998 - Enrichment of live food with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effects on milkfish (Chanos chanos) larval performance - Aquaculture 162: 269-286.

Halver J., Hardy R. 2002 - Fish Nutrition - Academic Press.

Ispir U., Yonar M.E., Oz O.B. 2011 - Effect of Dietary vitamin E supplementation on the blood parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 21: 566-569.

Kanazawa A. 1985 - Nutritional factors in fish reproduction - In: Reproduction and culture of milkfish (Eds) C.S. Lee, I.C.

Liao, The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, Hawaii: 115-125.

Kiron V., Puangkaew J., Ishizaka K., Satoh S., Watanabe T. 2004 - Antioxidant status and nonspecific immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed two levels of vitamin E along with three lipid sources - Aquaculture 234: 361-379.

Murai T., Andrews J.W. 1974 - Interactions of dietary alpha-tocopherol, oxidized menhaden oil and ethoxyquinon channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) - J. Nutr. 104: 1416-1431.

NRC 1993 - Nutrient Requirement of Fish - National Academy Press, Washington, DC, p. 114.

Pearce J., Harris J., Davies S. 2003 - The effect of vitamin E on the serum complement activity of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - Aquacult. Nut. 9: 337-340.

Poston H., Livingston D.L. 1969 - Effects of massive doses dietary vitamin E on fingerling brook trout - Fish. Res. Bull. 33: 9-12.

Racotta I.S., Palacios E., Hernández-Herrera R., Bonilla A., Pérez-Rostro C.I., Ramýì J.L. 2004 - Criteria for assessing larval and postlarval quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) - Aquaculture 233: 181-195.

Oehulka J., Minaoik B., Adamec V., Oehulkova E. 2005 - Investigations of physiological and pathological levels of total plasma protein in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - Aquac. Res. 36: 22-32.

Sahoo P.K., Mukherjee S.C. 2002 - Influence of fish dietary á-tocopherol intakes on specific immune response, non-specific immune resistance factors and disease resistance of healthy and aflatoxin B1-induced immunocompromised Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) - Aquacult. Nut. 8: 159-167.

Samocha T.M., Guajardo H., Lawrence AL., Castille F.L., Speed M., Mckee D.A., Page K.I. 1998 - A simple stress test for Penaeus vannamei postlarvae - Aquaculture 165: 233-242.

Santiago C.B., Gonzal A.C. 2000 - Effect of prepared diet and vitamins A, E and C supplementation on the reproductive performance of cage-reared bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 16: 8-13.

Wahli T., Verlhac V., Gabaudan J. 1998 - Influence of combined vitamins C and E on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) - J. Fish Dis. 21: 127-137.

Watanabe T., Takashima F. 1977 - Effects of á-tocopherol deficiency on carp. Deficiency symptoms and changes in fatty acid and triglyceride distribution in adult carp - Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 43: 819-830. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2) and combinations of them on the hematological parameters... 111

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