Intraspecific morphological variation between cultured and wild Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Clariidae, Siluriformes)

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate morphological differences between cultured and wild African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Fish samples were collected from the lower Benue River (axis in Makurdi), while cultured fish were obtained from the University of Agriculture Makurdi research farm. The results revealed significant sex-related variation in the fish from different environments. Significant differences were observed in all morphometric parameters measured and in three of the five meristic counts recorded. Discriminant analysis and cluster analysis of morphometric parameters showed a high divergence among the populations, hence the tested fish samples were grouped into respective environments by sex. The meristic count, however, overlapped broadly showing no divergence among the populations. The morphometric differences between the cultured and wild African catfish could have been linked to genetic differences or environmental factors or a combination of both factors.

Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate morphological differences between cultured and wild African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Fish samples were collected from the lower Benue River (axis in Makurdi), while cultured fish were obtained from the University of Agriculture Makurdi research farm. The results revealed significant sex-related variation in the fish from different environments. Significant differences were observed in all morphometric parameters measured and in three of the five meristic counts recorded. Discriminant analysis and cluster analysis of morphometric parameters showed a high divergence among the populations, hence the tested fish samples were grouped into respective environments by sex. The meristic count, however, overlapped broadly showing no divergence among the populations. The morphometric differences between the cultured and wild African catfish could have been linked to genetic differences or environmental factors or a combination of both factors.

References

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  • El-Serafy S.S., Abdel-Hameid N.-A.H., Awwad M.H., Azab M.S. 2007 - DNA riboprinting analysis of Tilapia species and their hybrids using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the small subunit ribosomal DNA - Aquac. Res. 38: 295-303.

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  • Haddon M., Willis T.J. 1995 - Morphometric and meristic comparison of orange roughy (Hoplostethus tlanticus: Trachichthyidae) from the Puysegur Bank and Lord Howe Rise, New Zealand, and its implications for stock structure - Mar. Biol. 123: 19-27.

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  • Hossain M.A.R., Nahiduzzaman M., Saha D. Habiba Khanam M.U., Alam M.S. 2010 - Landmark-Based morphometric and meristic Variations of the Endangered Carp, Kalibaus Labeo calbasu, from Stocks of Two Isolated Rivers, the Jamuna and Halda, and a Hatchery - Zool. Stud. 49: 556-563.

  • Leslie C.C., Grant W.S. 1990 - Lack of congruence between genetic and morphological stock structure of the 60 Shola G. Solomon et al. Southern African anglerfish Lophius vomerinus - South Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 9, 379-398.

  • Mamuris Z., Apostolidis A.P., Panagiotaki P., Theodorou A.J., Triantaphllidis C. 1998 - Morphological variation between red mullet populations in Greece - J. Fish Biol. 52: 107-117.

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  • Patiyal R.S., Mir J.I., Sharma R.C., Chandra S., Mahanta, P.C. 2014 - Pattern of meristic and morphometric variations between wild and captive stocks of endangered Tor putitora (Hamilton 1822) using multivariate statistical analysis methods - Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 84: 123-129.

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  • Stearns S.C. 1983 - A natural experiment in life-history evolution: field data on the introduction of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to Hawaii - Evolution 37: 601-617.

  • Strauss R.E. 1985 - Evolutionary allometry and variation in body form in the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Callichthydae) - Syst. Biol. 34: 381-396.

  • Swain D.P., Ridell B.E., Murray C.B. 1991 - Morphological differences between hatchery and wild populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): environmental versus genetic origin - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1783-1791.

  • Swain D.P., Foote C.J. 1999 - Stocks and chameleons the use of phenotypic variation in stock identification - Fish. Res. 43: 113-128.

  • Teugels G.G. 1986 - A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae) - Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr. 247: 1-199.

  • Thompson J.D. 1991 - Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change - Trends Ecol. Evol. 6: 246-249.

  • Turan C., Erguden D., Turan F., Gurlek M. 2004 - Genetic and morphologic structure of Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) populations from the Rivers Orontes, Euphrates and Tigris - Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 28: 729-734.

  • Turan C., Yalcin S., Turan F., Okur E., Akyurt I. 2005 - Morphometric comparisons of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus populations in Turkey - Folia. Zool. 54: 165-172.

  • Turan C., Oral M., Ozturk B., Duzgunes E. 2006 - Morphometric and meristic variation between stocks of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the Black, Marmara, Aegean and northeastern Mediterranean Seas - Fish. Res. 79: 139-147.

  • Vidalis K., Markakis G., Tsimenides N. 1994 - Discrimination between populations of picarel (Spicara smaris L., 1758) in the Aegean Sea, using multivariate analysis of phonetic characters - Fish. Res. 30: 191-197. von Cramon-Taubadel N.V., Ling E.N., Cotter D., Wilkins N.P. 2005 - Determination of body shape variation in Irish hatchery-reared and wild Atlantic salmon - J Fish Biol. 66: 1471-1482.

  • Wimberger P.H. 1992 - Plasticity of fish body shape, the effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae) - Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45: 197-218.

Agnew D.J. 1988 - Evidence for the existence of two populations of Irish Sea cod (Gadus morhua L.) from consideration of growth rates - ICES Committee Meeting Papers 1988/G 65, p. 20.

Allendorf F.W., Phelps S.R. 1988 - Loss of genetic variation in hatchery stock of cutthroat trout - rans. Am. Fish. Soc. 109: 537-543.

Allendorf F.W., Ryman N., Utter F. 1987 - Genetics and fishery management: past, present and future - In: Population genetics and fisheries management (Eds) U. Ryman, F. Utter, Washington D.C., University of Washington Press: 1-19.

Allendorf F.W. 1988 - Conservation biology of fishes - Conserv. Biol. 2: 145-148.

Avsar D. 1994 - Stock differentiation study of the sprat off the southern coast of the Black Sea - Fish. s. 19: 363-378.

Bronte C.R., Fleischer G.W., Maistrenko S.G., Pronin N.M. 1999 - Stock structure of Lake Baikal omul as determined by whole body morphology - J. Fish Biol. 54: 787-798. Creech S. 1992 - A multivariate morphometric investigation of Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 and A. presbyter Cuvier, 1829 (Teleostei: Atherinidae): morphometric evidence in support of the two species - J. Fish Biol. 41: 341-353.

Dunham A.E., Smith G.R., Taylor J.N. 1979 - Evidence for ecological character displacement in western American catostomid fishes - Evolution 33: 877-896.

El-Serafy S.S., Abdel-Hameid N.-A.H., Awwad M.H., Azab M.S. 2007 - DNA riboprinting analysis of Tilapia species and their hybrids using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the small subunit ribosomal DNA - Aquac. Res. 38: 295-303.

Elliott N.G., Haskard, K., Koslow, J.A. 1995 - Morphometric analysis of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) off the continental slope of southern Australia - J. Fish Biol. 46: 202-220.

Garibaldi L. 1996 - List of animal species used in aquaculture - FAO Fisheries Circular 914.

Haddon M., Willis T.J. 1995 - Morphometric and meristic comparison of orange roughy (Hoplostethus tlanticus: Trachichthyidae) from the Puysegur Bank and Lord Howe Rise, New Zealand, and its implications for stock structure - Mar. Biol. 123: 19-27.

Hecht T. 2013 - A review of on-farm feed management practices for North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in sub-Saharan Africa - In: On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture (Eds) M.R. Hasan, M.B. New, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 583. Rome: 463-479.

Hecht T., Oellermann L., Verheust L. 1996 - Perpectives on clariid catfish culture in Africa - Aquat. Living Resour. 9: 197-206. Hockaday S., Beddow T.A., Stone M., Hancock P., Ross L.G. 2000 - Using truss networks to estimate the biomass of Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate shape characters - J. Fish Biol. 57: 981-1000.

Hossain M.A.R., Nahiduzzaman M., Saha D. Habiba Khanam M.U., Alam M.S. 2010 - Landmark-Based morphometric and meristic Variations of the Endangered Carp, Kalibaus Labeo calbasu, from Stocks of Two Isolated Rivers, the Jamuna and Halda, and a Hatchery - Zool. Stud. 49: 556-563.

Leslie C.C., Grant W.S. 1990 - Lack of congruence between genetic and morphological stock structure of the 60 Shola G. Solomon et al. Southern African anglerfish Lophius vomerinus - South Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 9, 379-398.

Mamuris Z., Apostolidis A.P., Panagiotaki P., Theodorou A.J., Triantaphllidis C. 1998 - Morphological variation between red mullet populations in Greece - J. Fish Biol. 52: 107-117.

Mathiesen A.M. 2012 - The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012 - Food and Agriculture Organization.

Misra R.K., Carscadden J.E. 1987 - A multivariate analysis of morphometrics to detect differences in populations of capelin (Mallotus villosus) - J. Cons. Int. Expl. Mer. 43: 99-106.

Olufeagba S.O., Aluko P.O., Eyo A.A. 2002 - Dietary protein requirements of triploid Heterobranchus - J. Aquat Sci. 17: 1-4.

Parish B.B., Sharman D.P. 1958 - Some remark on method used in herring ‘racial’ investigations, with special reference to otolith studies - Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 143: 66-80.

Patiyal R.S., Mir J.I., Sharma R.C., Chandra S., Mahanta, P.C. 2014 - Pattern of meristic and morphometric variations between wild and captive stocks of endangered Tor putitora (Hamilton 1822) using multivariate statistical analysis methods - Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 84: 123-129.

Schweigert J.F. 1990 - Comparison of morphometric and meristic data against truss networks for describing Pacific herring stocks - Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 7: 47-62. Solem Ø., Berg O.K., Kj_snes A.J. 2006 - Interand intra-population morphological differences between wild and farmed Atlantic salmon juveniles - J. Fish Biol. 69: 1466-1481.

Stearns S.C. 1983 - A natural experiment in life-history evolution: field data on the introduction of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to Hawaii - Evolution 37: 601-617.

Strauss R.E. 1985 - Evolutionary allometry and variation in body form in the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Callichthydae) - Syst. Biol. 34: 381-396.

Swain D.P., Ridell B.E., Murray C.B. 1991 - Morphological differences between hatchery and wild populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): environmental versus genetic origin - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1783-1791.

Swain D.P., Foote C.J. 1999 - Stocks and chameleons the use of phenotypic variation in stock identification - Fish. Res. 43: 113-128.

Teugels G.G. 1986 - A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae) - Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr. 247: 1-199.

Thompson J.D. 1991 - Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change - Trends Ecol. Evol. 6: 246-249.

Turan C., Erguden D., Turan F., Gurlek M. 2004 - Genetic and morphologic structure of Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) populations from the Rivers Orontes, Euphrates and Tigris - Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 28: 729-734.

Turan C., Yalcin S., Turan F., Okur E., Akyurt I. 2005 - Morphometric comparisons of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus populations in Turkey - Folia. Zool. 54: 165-172.

Turan C., Oral M., Ozturk B., Duzgunes E. 2006 - Morphometric and meristic variation between stocks of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the Black, Marmara, Aegean and northeastern Mediterranean Seas - Fish. Res. 79: 139-147.

Vidalis K., Markakis G., Tsimenides N. 1994 - Discrimination between populations of picarel (Spicara smaris L., 1758) in the Aegean Sea, using multivariate analysis of phonetic characters - Fish. Res. 30: 191-197. von Cramon-Taubadel N.V., Ling E.N., Cotter D., Wilkins N.P. 2005 - Determination of body shape variation in Irish hatchery-reared and wild Atlantic salmon - J Fish Biol. 66: 1471-1482.

Wimberger P.H. 1992 - Plasticity of fish body shape, the effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae) - Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45: 197-218.

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