Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries

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Abstract

Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes) in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area) with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe) from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

Abstract

Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes) in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area) with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe) from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

References

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  • Andreska Ji. 1972 - Elbe fisheries in the sixteenth century in the writings of Dr. Jioi Handsch - Rybaostvi 73 4: 82 5: 106-107 6: 128 (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ji. 1973 - Extinction of salmon in the Elbe River - Rybaostvi 74: 248-251 (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ji. 1997 - Glamor and glory of Czech fisheries - Nuga Ostrava: Nuga 166 p. (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ja. 2011- Atlantic Salmon in the historical context and at present - _iva 4: 178-182 6: 276- 79 (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1890 - Breeding of salmon in Bohemia - Vesmir 19: 265. (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1925 - Angling association in the town of Sušice - Rybaosky vistnik 5: 142 (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1951 - The Eerna River - Eeskoslovensky rybao 6: 84. (in Czech).

  • Báca B.1929 - Some findings concerning Salmon biology - Rybaosky vistnik 9: 2-3 (in Czech).

  • Balbinus B. 1679 - Miscellanea historica Regni Bohemiae - Pragae. 194 p. (in Latin).

  • Balon E. 1952 - Fishes of the Olza River - Poirodovidny sbornik Ostravskeho kraje 13: 518-546 (in Czech).

  • Baruš V. Oliva O. 1995 - Lampreys and Fishes (1) Osteichthyes. Fauna of the Czech and Slovak Republics 28/1 - Academia Praha 623 p. (in Czech).

  • Birt T.P. Greene J.M. 2011 - Parr-smolt transformation in female and sexually mature male anadromous and non-anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 680-686.

  • Clifford S.L. McGinnity P. Ferguson A. 1998 - Genetic changes in an Atlantic salmon population resulting from escaped juvenile farm salmon - J. Fish Biol. 52: 118-127.

  • Crozier W.W. 1993 - Evidence of genetic interaction between escaped farmed salmon and wild salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a Northern Irish river - Aquaculture 113: 19-29.

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  • Dyk V. 1952 - Our fishes - Zdravotnicke nakladatelstvi Praha: 332 p. (in Czech).

  • Dyk V. 1974 - Development of knowledge and research of Šumava mountains waters - Dijiny vidy a techniky 7: 36-47 (in Czech).

  • Flasar I. Flasarova M. 1974 - About the history of salmon fishing in Bohemia - _iva 22 5: 189-191 (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1959 - Czech fishes - _iva 59 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1871 - About fishing in Bohemian rivers and its relationship to artificial breeding and industry - Praha 173 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1872 - Bohemian fishes 107-129 - In: Bohemian Vertebrates. Prace zoologickeho oddileni poirodovideckeho proskoumani Eech 148 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1874 - Breeding of salmon in the town of Sušice - Vesmir 3 12: 23-24 (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1875 - Artificial fish breeding in Bohemia: A report on breeding salmon and trout in 1871/74 - Praha 36 p. (in Czech).

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  • Frič A. 1908 - Czech Fishes and Their Parasites - Author’s edition Praha 78 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1912 - Fishes in the Prague district - _iva 22: 103-104 (in Czech).

  • Garant D. Dodson J.J. Bernatchez L. 2000 - Ecological determinants and temporal stability of the within-river population structure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Mol. Ecol. 9: 615-628.

  • Heinrich A. 1856 - Mahrens und k. k. Schlesiens Fische Reptilien und Vogel. Ein Beitrag zur Fauna beider Kronlander - Rud. Rohrers Erben Brno: 202 p. Chełkowski Z. Che3kowska B. 1996 - Fishing and protecting salmon in the Drawa River after World War II - Zool. Pol. 41 (suppl.): 73-78 (in Polish).

  • Ingendahl D. Beeck P. 2011 - Critical review on the re-introduction of flagship species - Revue SET 03bis: 146-151.

  • Jirák F. 1950 - Massive salmon fishing in Prague - Eeskoslovensky rybao 5 7-8: 114-115 (in Czech).

  • Kautský V. 1940 - How we angled salmon in Prague - Rybaosky vistnik 20 9: 174 (in Czech).

  • Martinez J.L. Moran P. Perez J. De Gaudemar B. Beall E. Garciavazquez E. 2000 - Multiple paternity increases effective size of southern Atlantic salmon populations - Mol. Ecol. 9: 293-298.

  • Monnerjahn U. 2011 - Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) re-introduction in Germany: a status report on national programmes and activities - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27: 33-40.

  • Myers R.A. Hutchings J.A. 1987 - Mating of anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. with mature male parr - J. Fish Biol. 31: 143-136.

  • Oliva O. 1982 - Further notes on Bohemian salmon (Salmo salar Pisces: Salmonidae) - Vistnik Es. Spol. zool. 46: 264-272.

  • Oliva O. Johal M.S. 1981 - On the last Bohemian salmons (Salmo salar) - Vistnik Es. Spol. zool. 45: 102-114.

  • Prusík F. 1885 - Abundance of salmon in Bohemia - Vesmir 14: 117 (in Czech).

  • Siebold C.T.E. 1863 - Die Susswasserfische von Mitteleuropa - W. Engelmann Leipzig 430 p. (in German).

  • Smíšek J. 1958 - Findings about our rivers: Otava River - Eeskoslovenske rybaostvi 12: 176 p. (in Czech). Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe... 15

  • Steinborn J. Retterath H. 1998 - Geschichte und Geschichten von Salmen und Lachsen im Tal der Loreley - Schulzentrum Oberwessel. Oberwessel: 56 p. (in German).

  • Tejčka J. 1925 - Contribution to the history of migration of Atlantic salmon in Southern Bohemia - Československy rybao 4: 135 (in Czech).

  • Teplý F. 1937 - Contributions to the history of Czech fish farming - Nakladem ministerstva zemidilstvi republiky Eeskoslovenske Praha 244 p. (in Czech).

  • Thorstad E.B. Fleming I.A. McGinnity P. Soto D. Wennevik V. Whoriskey F. 2008 - Incidence and impacts of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in nature - NINA Special Report 36 110 p.

  • Vrána P. 2010 - Biological basics and technology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) breeding and restoration in running waters - Jihoeeska univerzita v Eeskych Budijovicich Ph.D. dissertation 204 p. (in Czech).

  • Volf F. 1954 - The last records about Atlantic salmon - Sbornik Eeskoslovenske akademie zemidilskych vid 27: 327-332 (in Czech).

  • Wenzig J. Krejei J. 1860 - Der Bohmerwald Natur und Mensch - C. Bellmann Prag 354 p. (in German).

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  • Aas Ø. Klemetsen A. Einum S. Skurdal J. 2011 - Atlantic salmon ecology - John Wiley & Sons 496 p.

  • Andreska Ji. 1972 - Elbe fisheries in the sixteenth century in the writings of Dr. Jioi Handsch - Rybaostvi 73 4: 82 5: 106-107 6: 128 (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ji. 1973 - Extinction of salmon in the Elbe River - Rybaostvi 74: 248-251 (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ji. 1997 - Glamor and glory of Czech fisheries - Nuga Ostrava: Nuga 166 p. (in Czech).

  • Andreska Ja. 2011- Atlantic Salmon in the historical context and at present - _iva 4: 178-182 6: 276- 79 (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1890 - Breeding of salmon in Bohemia - Vesmir 19: 265. (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1925 - Angling association in the town of Sušice - Rybaosky vistnik 5: 142 (in Czech).

  • Anonymous 1951 - The Eerna River - Eeskoslovensky rybao 6: 84. (in Czech).

  • Báca B.1929 - Some findings concerning Salmon biology - Rybaosky vistnik 9: 2-3 (in Czech).

  • Balbinus B. 1679 - Miscellanea historica Regni Bohemiae - Pragae. 194 p. (in Latin).

  • Balon E. 1952 - Fishes of the Olza River - Poirodovidny sbornik Ostravskeho kraje 13: 518-546 (in Czech).

  • Baruš V. Oliva O. 1995 - Lampreys and Fishes (1) Osteichthyes. Fauna of the Czech and Slovak Republics 28/1 - Academia Praha 623 p. (in Czech).

  • Birt T.P. Greene J.M. 2011 - Parr-smolt transformation in female and sexually mature male anadromous and non-anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar - Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 680-686.

  • Clifford S.L. McGinnity P. Ferguson A. 1998 - Genetic changes in an Atlantic salmon population resulting from escaped juvenile farm salmon - J. Fish Biol. 52: 118-127.

  • Crozier W.W. 1993 - Evidence of genetic interaction between escaped farmed salmon and wild salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a Northern Irish river - Aquaculture 113: 19-29.

  • Čermákova A. 1973 - Salmon fishing on large farms on the Elbe Moldau and Otava from the seventeenth to the mid nineteenth centuries - Videcke prace Zemidilskeho muzea EZA 13: 195-214 (in Czech).

  • Dyk V. 1952 - Our fishes - Zdravotnicke nakladatelstvi Praha: 332 p. (in Czech).

  • Dyk V. 1974 - Development of knowledge and research of Šumava mountains waters - Dijiny vidy a techniky 7: 36-47 (in Czech).

  • Flasar I. Flasarova M. 1974 - About the history of salmon fishing in Bohemia - _iva 22 5: 189-191 (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1959 - Czech fishes - _iva 59 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1871 - About fishing in Bohemian rivers and its relationship to artificial breeding and industry - Praha 173 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1872 - Bohemian fishes 107-129 - In: Bohemian Vertebrates. Prace zoologickeho oddileni poirodovideckeho proskoumani Eech 148 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1874 - Breeding of salmon in the town of Sušice - Vesmir 3 12: 23-24 (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1875 - Artificial fish breeding in Bohemia: A report on breeding salmon and trout in 1871/74 - Praha 36 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1879 - A report on salmon breeding in the 1876-1879 period - Praha 18 p. (in Czech). A. 1893 - Salmon of the Elbe a Biological and Anatomical Study. Author’s edition Praha 106 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1908 - Czech Fishes and Their Parasites - Author’s edition Praha 78 p. (in Czech).

  • Frič A. 1912 - Fishes in the Prague district - _iva 22: 103-104 (in Czech).

  • Garant D. Dodson J.J. Bernatchez L. 2000 - Ecological determinants and temporal stability of the within-river population structure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - Mol. Ecol. 9: 615-628.

  • Heinrich A. 1856 - Mahrens und k. k. Schlesiens Fische Reptilien und Vogel. Ein Beitrag zur Fauna beider Kronlander - Rud. Rohrers Erben Brno: 202 p. Chełkowski Z. Che3kowska B. 1996 - Fishing and protecting salmon in the Drawa River after World War II - Zool. Pol. 41 (suppl.): 73-78 (in Polish).

  • Ingendahl D. Beeck P. 2011 - Critical review on the re-introduction of flagship species - Revue SET 03bis: 146-151.

  • Jirák F. 1950 - Massive salmon fishing in Prague - Eeskoslovensky rybao 5 7-8: 114-115 (in Czech).

  • Kautský V. 1940 - How we angled salmon in Prague - Rybaosky vistnik 20 9: 174 (in Czech).

  • Martinez J.L. Moran P. Perez J. De Gaudemar B. Beall E. Garciavazquez E. 2000 - Multiple paternity increases effective size of southern Atlantic salmon populations - Mol. Ecol. 9: 293-298.

  • Monnerjahn U. 2011 - Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) re-introduction in Germany: a status report on national programmes and activities - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27: 33-40.

  • Myers R.A. Hutchings J.A. 1987 - Mating of anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. with mature male parr - J. Fish Biol. 31: 143-136.

  • Oliva O. 1982 - Further notes on Bohemian salmon (Salmo salar Pisces: Salmonidae) - Vistnik Es. Spol. zool. 46: 264-272.

  • Oliva O. Johal M.S. 1981 - On the last Bohemian salmons (Salmo salar) - Vistnik Es. Spol. zool. 45: 102-114.

  • Prusík F. 1885 - Abundance of salmon in Bohemia - Vesmir 14: 117 (in Czech).

  • Siebold C.T.E. 1863 - Die Susswasserfische von Mitteleuropa - W. Engelmann Leipzig 430 p. (in German).

  • Smíšek J. 1958 - Findings about our rivers: Otava River - Eeskoslovenske rybaostvi 12: 176 p. (in Czech). Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe... 15

  • Steinborn J. Retterath H. 1998 - Geschichte und Geschichten von Salmen und Lachsen im Tal der Loreley - Schulzentrum Oberwessel. Oberwessel: 56 p. (in German).

  • Tejčka J. 1925 - Contribution to the history of migration of Atlantic salmon in Southern Bohemia - Československy rybao 4: 135 (in Czech).

  • Teplý F. 1937 - Contributions to the history of Czech fish farming - Nakladem ministerstva zemidilstvi republiky Eeskoslovenske Praha 244 p. (in Czech).

  • Thorstad E.B. Fleming I.A. McGinnity P. Soto D. Wennevik V. Whoriskey F. 2008 - Incidence and impacts of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in nature - NINA Special Report 36 110 p.

  • Vrána P. 2010 - Biological basics and technology of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) breeding and restoration in running waters - Jihoeeska univerzita v Eeskych Budijovicich Ph.D. dissertation 204 p. (in Czech).

  • Volf F. 1954 - The last records about Atlantic salmon - Sbornik Eeskoslovenske akademie zemidilskych vid 27: 327-332 (in Czech).

  • Wenzig J. Krejei J. 1860 - Der Bohmerwald Natur und Mensch - C. Bellmann Prag 354 p. (in German).

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