Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea) and fresh water (Khoshkrood River) environments

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Abstract

The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea) and fresh water (Khoshkrood River) environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature) and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature). Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

Abstract

The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea) and fresh water (Khoshkrood River) environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature) and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature). Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

References

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  • Altinok I., Galli S.M., Chapman F.M. 1998 - Ionic and osmotic regulation capabilities of juvenile Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus de sotoi - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 120: 609-616.

  • Akhundov M. M., Fedorov K.Y. 1995 - Effect of exogenous estradiol on ovarian development in juvenile sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus - J. Ichthyol. 35: 109-120.

  • Bath R.N., Eddy F.B. 1979 - Salt and water balance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) rapidly transferred from fresh water to sea water - J. Exp. Biol. 83: 193-202.

  • Belda E., Kolankaya D. 2009 - The relationship between chloride cells and salinity adaptation in the euryhaline teleost, Lebistes reticulatus - J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8: 888-892.

  • Caberoy N.B., Quinitio G.F. 2000 - Changes in Na+,K+-ATPase activity and gill chloride cell morphology in the grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae and juveniles in response to salinity and temperature - Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 23: 83-94.

  • Carmona R., Garcia-Gallego M., Sanz A., Domezain A., Ostos-Garrido M.V. 2004 - Chloride cells and pavement cells in gill epithelia of Acipenser naccarii: ultrastructural modifications in seawater-acclimated specimens - J. Fish Biol. 64: 553-566.

  • Erkmen B., Kolankaya D. 2009 - The relationship between chloride cells and salinity adaptation in the euryhaline teleost, Lebistes reticulatus - J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8: 888-892.

  • Evans D.H., Piermarini P.M., Choe K.P. 2005 - The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste - Physiol. Rev. 85: 97-177.

  • Farabi S.M.V., Najafpour S., Najafpour G.D. 2009 - Aspect of osmotic-ions regulation in juvenile ship, Acipenser nudiventris (Lovetsky, 1828) in the southeast of Caspian Sea - W. Appl. Sci. J. 7: 1090-1096.

  • Fielder D.S., Allan G.L., Pepperall D., Pankhurst P.M. 2007 - The effects of changes in salinity on osmoregulation and chloride cell morphology of juvenile Australian snapper, Pagrus auratus - Aquaculture 272: 656-666.

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  • Guner Y., Ozden O., Cagirgan H., Altunok M., Kizak V. 2005 - Effects of salinity on the osmoregulatory functions of the gills in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29: 1259-1266.

  • Hirai N., Tagawa M., Kaneko T., Seikai T., Tanaka M. 1999 - Distributional changes in branchial chloride cells during freshwater adaptation in Japanese Sea Bass Lateolabrax japonicus - Zool. Sci. 16: 43-49.

  • Holeik J. 1995 - New data on the ecology of kutum, Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840) from the Caspian Sea - Ecol. Freshw. Fish. 4: 175-179.

  • Hung S.S., Groff J.M., Lutes P.B., Fynn-Aikins F.K. 1990 - Hepatic and intestinal histology of juvenile white sturgeon fed different carbohydrates - Aquaculture 87: 349-360.

  • Hwang P.P., Sun C.M., Wu S.M. 1989 - Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride concentration and gill Na-K-ATPase activity in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus during seawater acclimation - Mar. Biol. 100: 295-299.

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  • Lee T.H., Feng S.H. Lin C.H., Hwang Y.H., Huang C.L., Hwang P.P. 2003 - Ambient salinity modulates the expression of sodium pumps in branchial mitochondria- rich cells of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus - Zool. Sci. 20: 29-36.

  • Lin C.H., Lee T.H. 2005 - Sodium or potassium ions activate different kinetics of gill Na, K - ATPase in three seawater - and freshwater - acclimated euryhaline teleosts - J. Exp.Zool. Part A 303: 57-65.

  • Lin Y.M., Chen C.N., Lee T.H. 2003 - The expression of gill Na, K-ATPase in milkfish Chanos chanos, acclimated to seawater, brackish water and fresh water - Comp.Biochem. Physiol. Part A 135: 489-497.

  • Marshall W.S., Nishioka R.S. 1980 - Relation of mitochondria- rich chloride cells to active chloride transport in the skin of a marine teleost - J. Exp. Zool. 214: 147-156.

  • McCormick S.D. 2011 - The hormonal control of osmoregulation in teleost fish - In: Encyclopedia of fish physiology: from genome to environment (Ed.) A.P.

  • Farrell, Academic Press, San Diego: 285-315.

  • Piermarini P.M., Evans D.H. 1998 - Osmoregulation of the Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) from the freshwater Lake Jesup of the St. Johns River, Florida - Physiol. Zool. 71: 553-560.

  • Pisam M., Moal C.L., Auperin B., Prunet P., Rambourg A. 1995 - Apical structures of “mitochondria-rich” á and â cells in euryhaline fish gill: Their behavior in various living conditions - Anat. Rec. 241: 13-24.

  • Sampaio L.A., Bianchini A. 2002 - Salinity effects on osmoregulation and growth of the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus - J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 269: 187-196.

  • Singer T.D., Clements K.M., Semple J.W., Schulte P.M., Bystrainnsky J.S., Finstad B., Fleming I.A., McKinley R.S. 2002 - Seawater tolerance and gene expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts - Can. J.

  • Fish. Aqua. Sci. 59: 125-135.

  • Sharyati A. 1993 - Fishes of the Caspian Sea Region - Iranian Fisheries Company, Iran (in Persian).

  • Shikano T., Fujio Y. 1999 - Relationships of salinity tolerance to immunolocalization of Na +,K+ ATPase in the gill epithelium during seawater and freshwater adaptation of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata - Zool. Sci. 15: 35-41.

  • Uchida K., Kaneko T. 1996 - Enhanced chloride cell turnover in the gills of chum salmon fry in seawater - Zool. Sci. 13: 655-660.

  • Uchida K., Kaneko T., Yamauchi K., Hirano Y. 2000 - Morphometrical analysis of chloride cell activity in the gill filament and lamellae and changes in Na+, K+ -ATPase activity during seawater adaptation in chum salmon fry - J. Exp. Zool. 276: 193-200.

  • Varsamos S., Diaz J.P., Charmantier G., Flik G., Blasco C., Connes R. 2002 - Branchial chloride cells in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) adapted to fresh water, seawater and doubly concentrated seawater - J. Exp. Zool. 293: 12-26.

  • Vonck A.P.M., WendelaarBonga A.S.E., Flik G. 1998 - Sodium and calcium balance in Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, raised at different salinities - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 119: 441-449.

  • Wales B. 1997 - Ultrastructural study of chloride cells in the trunk epithelium of larval herring, Clupea harengus - Tiss. Cell. 29: 439-447.

  • Wilson J.M., Morgan J.D., Vogl A.W., Randall D.J. 2002 - Branchial mitochondria-rich cells in the dogfish Squalus acanthias - Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A. 132: 365-374.

  • Zydlewski J., McCormick S.D. 2001 - Developmental and environmental regulation of chloride cells in young American Shad, Alosa sapidissima - J. Exp. Zool. 290: 73-78.

Alderdice D.F. 1988 - Osmotic and ionic regulation in teleost eggs and larvae - In: Fish Physiology Vol 11 (Eds) W.S.Hoar, D.J. Randall, Academic Press, San Diego: 163-251.

Altinok I., Galli S.M., Chapman F.M. 1998 - Ionic and osmotic regulation capabilities of juvenile Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus de sotoi - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 120: 609-616.

Akhundov M. M., Fedorov K.Y. 1995 - Effect of exogenous estradiol on ovarian development in juvenile sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus - J. Ichthyol. 35: 109-120.

Bath R.N., Eddy F.B. 1979 - Salt and water balance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) rapidly transferred from fresh water to sea water - J. Exp. Biol. 83: 193-202.

Belda E., Kolankaya D. 2009 - The relationship between chloride cells and salinity adaptation in the euryhaline teleost, Lebistes reticulatus - J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8: 888-892.

Caberoy N.B., Quinitio G.F. 2000 - Changes in Na+,K+-ATPase activity and gill chloride cell morphology in the grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae and juveniles in response to salinity and temperature - Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 23: 83-94.

Carmona R., Garcia-Gallego M., Sanz A., Domezain A., Ostos-Garrido M.V. 2004 - Chloride cells and pavement cells in gill epithelia of Acipenser naccarii: ultrastructural modifications in seawater-acclimated specimens - J. Fish Biol. 64: 553-566.

Erkmen B., Kolankaya D. 2009 - The relationship between chloride cells and salinity adaptation in the euryhaline teleost, Lebistes reticulatus - J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8: 888-892.

Evans D.H., Piermarini P.M., Choe K.P. 2005 - The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste - Physiol. Rev. 85: 97-177.

Farabi S.M.V., Najafpour S., Najafpour G.D. 2009 - Aspect of osmotic-ions regulation in juvenile ship, Acipenser nudiventris (Lovetsky, 1828) in the southeast of Caspian Sea - W. Appl. Sci. J. 7: 1090-1096.

Fielder D.S., Allan G.L., Pepperall D., Pankhurst P.M. 2007 - The effects of changes in salinity on osmoregulation and chloride cell morphology of juvenile Australian snapper, Pagrus auratus - Aquaculture 272: 656-666.

Foskett J.K., Longsdon C.D., Turner T., Machen T.E., Bern H.A. 1981 - Differentiation of the chloride extrusion mechanism during seawater adaptation of a teleost fish, the cichlid Sarotherodon mossambicus - J. Exp. Biol. 93: 209-224.

Guner Y., Ozden O., Cagirgan H., Altunok M., Kizak V. 2005 - Effects of salinity on the osmoregulatory functions of the gills in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29: 1259-1266.

Hirai N., Tagawa M., Kaneko T., Seikai T., Tanaka M. 1999 - Distributional changes in branchial chloride cells during freshwater adaptation in Japanese Sea Bass Lateolabrax japonicus - Zool. Sci. 16: 43-49.

Holeik J. 1995 - New data on the ecology of kutum, Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840) from the Caspian Sea - Ecol. Freshw. Fish. 4: 175-179.

Hung S.S., Groff J.M., Lutes P.B., Fynn-Aikins F.K. 1990 - Hepatic and intestinal histology of juvenile white sturgeon fed different carbohydrates - Aquaculture 87: 349-360.

Hwang P.P., Sun C.M., Wu S.M. 1989 - Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride concentration and gill Na-K-ATPase activity in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus during seawater acclimation - Mar. Biol. 100: 295-299.

Jobling M. 1995 - Environmental biology of fishes - Chapman & Hall, London. 455 p.

Jurd R.D. 2000 - Instant Notes in Animal Biology - Bios. Sci.Pub.

Kaneko T., Hiroi J. 2008 - Osmo and ionoregulation - In: Fish Larval Physiology (Eds) R.N. Finn, B.G. Kapoor, Science Publishers, Enfield: 163-183.

Lasserre P. 1971 - Increase of (Na++K+) - dependent ATPase activity in gills and kidneys of two euryhaline marine teleost, Crenimugil labrosus (Risso, 1826) and Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758), during adaptation to freshwater - Life Sci. 10: 113-119.

Lee T.H., Feng S.H. Lin C.H., Hwang Y.H., Huang C.L., Hwang P.P. 2003 - Ambient salinity modulates the expression of sodium pumps in branchial mitochondria- rich cells of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus - Zool. Sci. 20: 29-36.

Lin C.H., Lee T.H. 2005 - Sodium or potassium ions activate different kinetics of gill Na, K - ATPase in three seawater - and freshwater - acclimated euryhaline teleosts - J. Exp.Zool. Part A 303: 57-65.

Lin Y.M., Chen C.N., Lee T.H. 2003 - The expression of gill Na, K-ATPase in milkfish Chanos chanos, acclimated to seawater, brackish water and fresh water - Comp.Biochem. Physiol. Part A 135: 489-497.

Marshall W.S., Nishioka R.S. 1980 - Relation of mitochondria- rich chloride cells to active chloride transport in the skin of a marine teleost - J. Exp. Zool. 214: 147-156.

McCormick S.D. 2011 - The hormonal control of osmoregulation in teleost fish - In: Encyclopedia of fish physiology: from genome to environment (Ed.) A.P.

Farrell, Academic Press, San Diego: 285-315.

Piermarini P.M., Evans D.H. 1998 - Osmoregulation of the Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) from the freshwater Lake Jesup of the St. Johns River, Florida - Physiol. Zool. 71: 553-560.

Pisam M., Moal C.L., Auperin B., Prunet P., Rambourg A. 1995 - Apical structures of “mitochondria-rich” á and â cells in euryhaline fish gill: Their behavior in various living conditions - Anat. Rec. 241: 13-24.

Sampaio L.A., Bianchini A. 2002 - Salinity effects on osmoregulation and growth of the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus - J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 269: 187-196.

Singer T.D., Clements K.M., Semple J.W., Schulte P.M., Bystrainnsky J.S., Finstad B., Fleming I.A., McKinley R.S. 2002 - Seawater tolerance and gene expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts - Can. J.

Fish. Aqua. Sci. 59: 125-135.

Sharyati A. 1993 - Fishes of the Caspian Sea Region - Iranian Fisheries Company, Iran (in Persian).

Shikano T., Fujio Y. 1999 - Relationships of salinity tolerance to immunolocalization of Na +,K+ ATPase in the gill epithelium during seawater and freshwater adaptation of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata - Zool. Sci. 15: 35-41.

Uchida K., Kaneko T. 1996 - Enhanced chloride cell turnover in the gills of chum salmon fry in seawater - Zool. Sci. 13: 655-660.

Uchida K., Kaneko T., Yamauchi K., Hirano Y. 2000 - Morphometrical analysis of chloride cell activity in the gill filament and lamellae and changes in Na+, K+ -ATPase activity during seawater adaptation in chum salmon fry - J. Exp. Zool. 276: 193-200.

Varsamos S., Diaz J.P., Charmantier G., Flik G., Blasco C., Connes R. 2002 - Branchial chloride cells in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) adapted to fresh water, seawater and doubly concentrated seawater - J. Exp. Zool. 293: 12-26.

Vonck A.P.M., WendelaarBonga A.S.E., Flik G. 1998 - Sodium and calcium balance in Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, raised at different salinities - Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 119: 441-449.

Wales B. 1997 - Ultrastructural study of chloride cells in the trunk epithelium of larval herring, Clupea harengus - Tiss. Cell. 29: 439-447.

Wilson J.M., Morgan J.D., Vogl A.W., Randall D.J. 2002 - Branchial mitochondria-rich cells in the dogfish Squalus acanthias - Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A. 132: 365-374.

Zydlewski J., McCormick S.D. 2001 - Developmental and environmental regulation of chloride cells in young American Shad, Alosa sapidissima - J. Exp. Zool. 290: 73-78.

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