Iodine Disinfection of Sea Trout, Salmo Trutta (L.), Eggs and the Affect on Egg Surfaces

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the research was to investigate the impact iodine solution disinfection had on Salmo trutta (L.) egg survival rates during incubation, and to determine the effect of the disinfection procedure on egg shells using scanning microscopy. The study groups were bathed in a Desamar K30 solution at a concentration of 100 ml per 10 dm-3 for 10 m once after the eggs had hardened and four times after the eyed stage. Egg samples for scanning analyses were collected on day 30 of incubation at the eyed stage after the first bath in the iodophor solution, and then at the end of incubation. Egg surface images were analyzed for the number of bacteria, the presence of hyphae, and the egg surface area covered with sediments. No statistically significant differences were noted in embryo survival rates in the groups that were disinfected. The highest number of bacteria was observed on egg surfaces which had not been disinfected prior to hatching. A significant amount of sediment was observed on the eggs during incubation. On day 90 of incubation, all of the egg surfaces were covered with sediments. Disinfection was not noted to have had a significant impact on the presence of hyphae. Iodophor preparations can be used for routine disinfection of trout eggs; however, other means of disinfection should be applied before the eyed egg stage.

References

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  • Alderman D.J. 2002 - Trends in therapy and prophylaxis 1991-2001 - Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 22: 117-125.

  • Antychowicz J. 2007 - Spawn and fry diseases: the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms by spawn - Wyd. PIWet Puławy: p. 7 (in Polish).

  • Atemnkeng M.A. Plaizer-Vercammen J. Schuermans A. 2006 - Comparison of free and bound iodine species as a function of three commercial povidone-iodine formulations and their microbiocidal activity - Int. J. Pharm. 317: 161-166.

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  • Baker G.A. Smith S.N. Bromage N.R. 1989 - The bacterial flora of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson and brown trout Salmo trutta L. eggs and its relationship to developmental success - J. Fish Dis. 12: 281-293.

  • Barnes M.E. Wintersteen K. Sayler W.A. Cordes R.J. 2000 -Use of formalin during incubation of rainbow trout eyed eggs - N. Am. J. Aquacult. 62: 54-59.

  • Bell G.R. Hoskins G.E. Bagshaw J.W. 1969 - On the structure and enzymatic degradation of the external membrane of the salmon egg - Can. J. Zool. 47:146-148.

  • Cooper R.A. 2007 - Iodine revisited - Int. Wound J. 4: 124-137.

  • Czeczuga B. Bartel R. Kiziewicz B. Godlewska A. Muszyńska E. 2005 - Zoosporic fungi growing on the eggs of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) in river water of varied trophicity - Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 14: 295-303.

  • Duong A. Steinmaus C. McHale C.M. Vaughan C.P. Zhang L. 2011 - Reproductive and developmental toxicity of formaldehyde: A systematic review - Mutat. Res-Rev. Mutat. 728: 118-138.

  • Evelyn T.P Ketcherson J.E. Prosperi-Porta L. 1984 - Further evidence for presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid eggs and for the failure of povidone-iodine to reduce the intra-ovum infection rate in water-hardened eggs - J. Fish Dis. 7: 173-182.

  • Gieseker C.M. Serfling S.G. Reimschuessel R. 2006 -Formalin treatment to reduce mortality associated with Saprolegnia parasitica in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss - Aquaculture 253: 120-129.

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  • Greig S.M. Sear D.A. Smallman D. Carling P.A. 2005 -Impact of clay particles on the cutaneous exchange of oxygen across the chorion of Atlantic salmon eggs - J. Fish Biol. 66: 1681-1691.

  • Katharios P. Agathaggelou A. Paraskevopoulos S. Mylonas C.C. 2007 - Comparison of iodine and glutardehyde as surface disinfectants for red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) and white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) eggs - Aquac. Res. 38: 527-536.

  • Khodabandeh S. Abtahi B. 2006 - Effects of sodium chloride formalin and iodine on the hatching success of common carp Cyprinus carpio eggs - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22: 54-56.

  • Mainous M.E. Smith S.A. Kuhn D.D. 2010 - Effect of common aquaculture chemicals against Edwardsiella ictaluri and E. tarda - J. Aquat. Anim. Health 22: 224-228.

  • Meyer F.P. 1991. Aquaculture disease and health management. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 4201-4208.

  • Mitrowska K. Posyniak A. 2005 - Malachite green: pharmacological and toxicological aspects and residue control - Med. Weter. 61: 742-745 (in Polish).

  • Overton J.L. Bruun M.S. Dalsgaard I. 2010 - Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L - J. Fish Dis. 33: 707-716.

  • Pavlov D.A. Moksness E. 1993 - Bacterial destruction of the egg shell of common wolffish during incubation - Aquacult. Int. 1: 178-186.

  • Paxton C.G. Willoughby L. G. 2000 - Resistance of perch eggs to attack by aquatic fungi - J. Fish Biol. 57: 562-570.

  • Peck M.A. Buckley L.J. O'Bryan L.M. Davies E.J. Lapolla A.E. 2004 - Efficacy of egg surface disinfectants in captive spawning Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. and haddockMelanogrammus aeglefinus L. - Aquac. Res. 35: 992-996.

  • Sauter R.W. Williams C. Meyer E.A. Celnik B. Banks J.L. Leith D.A. 1987 - J. Fish Dis. 10: 193-203.

  • Schreier T.M. Rach J.J. Howe G.E. 1996 - Efficacy of formalin hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs - Aquaculture 140: 323-331.

  • Siwicki A.K. Grudniewska J. Terech-Majewska E. Grawiński E. Trapkowska S. 2002 - Efficacy of Actomar K30 in prophylaxis against viral diseases of fishes - Komun. Ryb. 5: 24-25 (in Polish).

  • Srivastava S. Sinha R. Roy D. 2004 - Toxicological effects of malachite green - Aquat. Toxicol. 66: 319-329.

  • Stuart K.R. Keller M. Drawbridge M. 2010 - Efficacy of formalin and povidone-iodine disinfection techniques on the eggs of three marine finfish species - Aquac. Res. 41: 838-843.

  • Terech-Majewska E. Grudniewska J. Siwicki A.K. 2010 -Disinfection prophylaxis and support in the treatment of fish diseases based on the most efficient biocides -Komun. Ryb. 115: 11-16 (in Polish).

  • Thoen E. Evensen Ø. Skaar I. 2011 - Pathogenicity of Sapro-legnia spp. to Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. eggs - J. Fish Dis. 34: 601-608.

  • Trust T.J. 1972 -The bacterial population in vertical flow tray hatcheries during incubation of salmonid eggs - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 567-571.

  • Varner-Jeffreys D.W. Nakamura I. Shields R.J. 2007 -Surface disinfection of Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis and amberjack Seriola rivoliana eggs - Aquac. Res. 38: 605-612.

    • Crossref
  • Wagner E.J. Arndt R.E. Billman E.J. Forest A. Cavender W. 2008 - Comparison of the efficacy of iodine formalin salt and hydrogen peroxide for control of external bacteria on rainbow trout eggs - N. Am. J. Aquacult. 70: 118-127.

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  • Alderman D. 1984 - The toxicity of iodophors to salmonid eggs - Aquaculture 40: 7-16.

  • Alderman D.J. 2002 - Trends in therapy and prophylaxis 1991-2001 - Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 22: 117-125.

  • Antychowicz J. 2007 - Spawn and fry diseases: the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms by spawn - Wyd. PIWet Puławy: p. 7 (in Polish).

  • Atemnkeng M.A. Plaizer-Vercammen J. Schuermans A. 2006 - Comparison of free and bound iodine species as a function of three commercial povidone-iodine formulations and their microbiocidal activity - Int. J. Pharm. 317: 161-166.

  • Baker G.A. Bromage N.R. Smith S.N. 1991 - Commensal bacteria and their possible relationship to the mortality of incubating salmonid eggs - J. Fish Dis. 14: 199-210.

  • Baker G.A. Smith S.N. Bromage N.R. 1989 - The bacterial flora of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson and brown trout Salmo trutta L. eggs and its relationship to developmental success - J. Fish Dis. 12: 281-293.

  • Barnes M.E. Wintersteen K. Sayler W.A. Cordes R.J. 2000 -Use of formalin during incubation of rainbow trout eyed eggs - N. Am. J. Aquacult. 62: 54-59.

  • Bell G.R. Hoskins G.E. Bagshaw J.W. 1969 - On the structure and enzymatic degradation of the external membrane of the salmon egg - Can. J. Zool. 47:146-148.

  • Cooper R.A. 2007 - Iodine revisited - Int. Wound J. 4: 124-137.

  • Czeczuga B. Bartel R. Kiziewicz B. Godlewska A. Muszyńska E. 2005 - Zoosporic fungi growing on the eggs of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) in river water of varied trophicity - Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 14: 295-303.

  • Duong A. Steinmaus C. McHale C.M. Vaughan C.P. Zhang L. 2011 - Reproductive and developmental toxicity of formaldehyde: A systematic review - Mutat. Res-Rev. Mutat. 728: 118-138.

  • Evelyn T.P Ketcherson J.E. Prosperi-Porta L. 1984 - Further evidence for presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid eggs and for the failure of povidone-iodine to reduce the intra-ovum infection rate in water-hardened eggs - J. Fish Dis. 7: 173-182.

  • Gieseker C.M. Serfling S.G. Reimschuessel R. 2006 -Formalin treatment to reduce mortality associated with Saprolegnia parasitica in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss - Aquaculture 253: 120-129.

  • Goryczko K. 2012 - Trouts husbandry and breeding - Wyd. IRS Olsztyn: p. 49 (in Polish).

  • Greig S.M. Sear D.A. Smallman D. Carling P.A. 2005 -Impact of clay particles on the cutaneous exchange of oxygen across the chorion of Atlantic salmon eggs - J. Fish Biol. 66: 1681-1691.

  • Katharios P. Agathaggelou A. Paraskevopoulos S. Mylonas C.C. 2007 - Comparison of iodine and glutardehyde as surface disinfectants for red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) and white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) eggs - Aquac. Res. 38: 527-536.

  • Khodabandeh S. Abtahi B. 2006 - Effects of sodium chloride formalin and iodine on the hatching success of common carp Cyprinus carpio eggs - J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22: 54-56.

  • Mainous M.E. Smith S.A. Kuhn D.D. 2010 - Effect of common aquaculture chemicals against Edwardsiella ictaluri and E. tarda - J. Aquat. Anim. Health 22: 224-228.

  • Meyer F.P. 1991. Aquaculture disease and health management. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 4201-4208.

  • Mitrowska K. Posyniak A. 2005 - Malachite green: pharmacological and toxicological aspects and residue control - Med. Weter. 61: 742-745 (in Polish).

  • Overton J.L. Bruun M.S. Dalsgaard I. 2010 - Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L - J. Fish Dis. 33: 707-716.

  • Pavlov D.A. Moksness E. 1993 - Bacterial destruction of the egg shell of common wolffish during incubation - Aquacult. Int. 1: 178-186.

  • Paxton C.G. Willoughby L. G. 2000 - Resistance of perch eggs to attack by aquatic fungi - J. Fish Biol. 57: 562-570.

  • Peck M.A. Buckley L.J. O'Bryan L.M. Davies E.J. Lapolla A.E. 2004 - Efficacy of egg surface disinfectants in captive spawning Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. and haddockMelanogrammus aeglefinus L. - Aquac. Res. 35: 992-996.

  • Sauter R.W. Williams C. Meyer E.A. Celnik B. Banks J.L. Leith D.A. 1987 - J. Fish Dis. 10: 193-203.

  • Schreier T.M. Rach J.J. Howe G.E. 1996 - Efficacy of formalin hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs - Aquaculture 140: 323-331.

  • Siwicki A.K. Grudniewska J. Terech-Majewska E. Grawiński E. Trapkowska S. 2002 - Efficacy of Actomar K30 in prophylaxis against viral diseases of fishes - Komun. Ryb. 5: 24-25 (in Polish).

  • Srivastava S. Sinha R. Roy D. 2004 - Toxicological effects of malachite green - Aquat. Toxicol. 66: 319-329.

  • Stuart K.R. Keller M. Drawbridge M. 2010 - Efficacy of formalin and povidone-iodine disinfection techniques on the eggs of three marine finfish species - Aquac. Res. 41: 838-843.

  • Terech-Majewska E. Grudniewska J. Siwicki A.K. 2010 -Disinfection prophylaxis and support in the treatment of fish diseases based on the most efficient biocides -Komun. Ryb. 115: 11-16 (in Polish).

  • Thoen E. Evensen Ø. Skaar I. 2011 - Pathogenicity of Sapro-legnia spp. to Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. eggs - J. Fish Dis. 34: 601-608.

  • Trust T.J. 1972 -The bacterial population in vertical flow tray hatcheries during incubation of salmonid eggs - J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 567-571.

  • Varner-Jeffreys D.W. Nakamura I. Shields R.J. 2007 -Surface disinfection of Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis and amberjack Seriola rivoliana eggs - Aquac. Res. 38: 605-612.

    • Crossref
  • Wagner E.J. Arndt R.E. Billman E.J. Forest A. Cavender W. 2008 - Comparison of the efficacy of iodine formalin salt and hydrogen peroxide for control of external bacteria on rainbow trout eggs - N. Am. J. Aquacult. 70: 118-127.

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