According to a recent Business Case produced by the General Lighthouse Authorities of the United Kingdom and Ireland (GLAs), e-Loran is the only system that, when combined with GNSS, can achieve cost effective resilient Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) by 2018 for maritime e-Navigation. The GLAs currently operate a trial e-Loran service from Harwich, UK and are working towards establishing e-Loran Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in the seven busiest UK ports and port approaches by mid-2013. A future extension of e-Loran coverage to the entire GLA service area will require the installation of additional transmitting stations. When planning the installation of e-Loran transmitters service providers will need a good understanding of the effects of the new signals on the system’s performance. Since all e-Loran stations share the same frequency band and the e-Loran signals propagate over vast distances, special attention needs to be paid to the issue of intra-system interference. This is also referred to as Cross-Rate Interference (CRI) and is inherent to the way e-Loran operates.
In this paper we examine the impact of CRI on the position accuracy performance of e-Loran receivers. First, a signal processing model for a typical e-Loran receiver is developed. This could provide the e-Loran community with a unified framework for receiver performance evaluation. Numerical and, where possible, analytical results obtained from the model are then presented, describing the achievable accuracy performance under different interference conditions. The theoretical results are also compared to those obtained from measurements made on a commercially available receiver driven by a signal simulator.
Our analysis shows that modern e-Loran signal processing algorithms can achieve a substantial reduction of the negative effects of CRI. However, there is still an appreciable residual effect, which should be taken into account when designing future e-Loran networks and determining their coverage and performance
 Haykin S., Communication Systems, 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001.
 Lo S., Peterson B., Boyce C., Enge P., Loran Coverage Availability Simulation Tool, in Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) NAV08/ International Loran Association 37th Annual Meeting, 2008.
 Lo S., Peterson B., Enge P., Loran data modulation: A primer, IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 2007, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 31-51.
 Nieuwland A. K., GRI Ranking Based on Cross-Rate Interference in Loran-C, The Journal of Navigation, 1995, Vol. 48, pp. 136-152.
 Pelgrum W., New Potential of Low-Frequency Radionavigation in the 21st Century, Ph.D. dissertation, TU Delft, 2006.
 Personal discussions with Dr. Arthur Helwig (Reelektronika b.v.).
 Roland W. F., Loran-C Phase Code and Rate Manipulation for Reduced Cross Chain Interference, in Proceedings of the 3rd Technical Symposium of the Wild Goose Association, 1974.
 Safar J., Cross-Rate Interference in e-Loran: Analysis and Mitigation, Ph.D. dissertation, Czech Technical University (CTU), Prague, to appear.
 Safar J., Lebekwe C. K., Williams P., Accuracy Performance of e-Loran for Maritime Applications, Annual of Navigation, 2010, Vol. 16, pp. 109-122.
 Safar J., Vejrazka F., Williams P., Assessing the limits of e-Loran positioning accuracy, in Proceedings of the TransNav 2011 International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, A. Weintrit, ed., Gdynia Maritime University, Poland: CRC Press/Balkema, June 2011, pp. 55-63.
 Safar J., Williams P., Basker S., Vejrazka F., Group Repetition Interval Selection and Core e-Loran Service Capacity, in Proceedings of the 13th IAIN World Congress, Stockholm 2009.
 Safar J., Williams P., Gug S., Group Repetition Interval Selection for e-Loran, in Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) NAV08/ International Loran Association (ILA) 37th Annual Meeting, London, UK, 2008.
 Specification of the Transmitted LORAN-C Signal, United States Coast Guard, 1994, COMDTINST M16562.4A.