Effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios on growth performance, blood lipid profiles, fatty acid composition of pork, carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs

Open access

Abstract

A total of 72 crossbred pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an average initial BW of 51.59±1.59 kg were used in this 10-wk feeding trial to investigate the effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios in finishing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (each n=24) with 6 replications and 4 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated by replacing soybean oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6:n-3 close to 5:1, 10:1 and 15:1, respectively. The growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality parameters (meat color, sensory evaluation, cooking loss, drip loss, pH, longissimus muscle area and water holding capacity) were not influenced (P>0.10) by various dietary n-6:n-3 ratios. Pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 had a lower (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The concentrations of n-3 PUFA , including C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were improved (P<0.05) in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1. Furthermore, pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 decreased (P<0.05) the n-6 concentrations (C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6) of longissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6:n-3 ratios to 5:1 could be beneficial for the blood lipid profiles, and improve the nutritional value of pork, without adverse effect on growth performance and meat quality parameters that are related to the consumer acceptance.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Chen Y.J. Kim I.H. Cho J.H. Yoo J.S. Wang Q. Wang Y. Huang Y. (2008). Evaluation of dietary L-carnitine or garlic powder on growth performance dry matter and nitrogen digestibilities blood profiles and meat quality in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141: 141-152.

  • Dannenberger D. Nuernberg K. Nuernberg G. Priepke A. (2012). Different dietary protein and PUFAinterventions alter the fatty acid concentrations but not the meat quality of porcine muscle. Nutrients 4: 1237-1246.

  • Delgado- Lista J. Perez- Martinez P. Lopez- Miranda J. Perez- Jimenez F. (2012). Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease:asystematic review. Brit. J. Nutr. 107: S201-S213.

  • Demirel G. Wachira A.M. Sinclair LA. Wilkinson R.G. Wood J.D. Enser M. (2004). Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids breed and dietary vitamin Eon the fatty acids of lamb muscle liver and adipose tissue. Brit. J. Nutr. 91: 551-565.

  • Duan Y. Li F. Li L. Fan J. Sun X. Yin Y. (2014). n-6: n-3 PUFAratio is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs. Brit. J. Nutr. 111: 445-451.

  • Ewart H.S. Cole L.K. Kralovec J. Layton H. Curtis J.M. Wright J.L. Murphy M.G. (2002). Fish oil containing phytosterol esters alters blood lipid profiles and left ventricle generation of thromboxane A2 in adult guinea pigs. J. Nutr. 132: 1149-1152.

  • Folch J. Lees M. Stanley G.H.S. (1957). Asimple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226: 497-509.

  • Ford E.S. Giles W.H. Dietz W.H. (2002). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. JAMA 287: 356-359.

  • Guillevic M. Kouba M. Mourot J. (2009). Effect ofalinseed diet orasunflower diet on performances fatty acid composition lipogenic enzyme activities and stearoyl-Co A-desaturase activity in the pig. Livest. Sci. 124: 288-294.

  • Honikel K.O. (1998). Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci. 49: 447-457.

  • Huang F.R. Zhan Z.P. Luo J. Liu Z.X. Peng J. (2008). Duration of dietary linseed feeding affects the intramuscular fat muscle mass and fatty acid composition in pig muscle. Livest. Sci. 118: 132-139.

  • Kartikasari L.R. Hughes R.J. Geier M.S. Makrides M. Gibson R.A. (2012). Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues. Prostag. Leukotr. Ess. 87: 103-109.

  • Kauffman R.G. Eikelenboom G. Vander Wal P.G. Engel B. Zaar M. (1986). Acomparison of methods to estimate water-holding capacity in post-rigor porcine muscle. Meat Sci. 18: 307-322.

  • Kobayashi N. Barnard R.J. Henning S.M. Elashoff D. Reddy S.T. Cohen P. Leung P. Hong- Gonzalez J. Freedland S.J. Said J. (2006). Effect of altering dietary ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane composition cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Clin. Cancer Res. 12: 4662-4670.

  • Laidlaw M. Holub B.J. (2003). Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids andγ-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77: 37-42.

  • Leskanich C.O. Matthews K.R. Warkup C.C. Noble R.C. Hazzledine M. (1997). The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 673-683.

  • Leslie M.A. Cohen D.J. Liddle D.M. Robinson L.E. Ma D.W. (2015). Areview of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood triacylglycerol levels in normolipidemic and borderline hyperlipidemic individuals. Lipids Health Dis. 14: 53.

  • Li F. Duan Y. Li Y. Tang Y. Geng M. Oladele O.A. Kim S.W. Yin Y.L. (2015). Effects of dietary n-6: n-3 PUFAratio on fatty acid composition free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs. Brit. J. Nutr. 113: 739-748.

  • Mandal G.P. Ghosh T.K. Patra A.K. (2014). Effect of different dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios on the performance and fatty acid composition in muscles of broiler chickens. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27: 1608-1614.

  • Marco D.J.M. Acda S.P. Roxas D.B. Merca F.E. (2013). Effect of omega-3 fatty acid enriched feed supplement on broiler performance and carcass quality. Philipp. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 39: 53-62.

  • NPPC (National Pork Producers Council) (2000). Pork composition and quality assessment procedures E. Berg (ed.). National Pork Producers Council Des Monica Iowa USA pp. 1-38.

  • NRC (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine 11th ed. National Academy Press Washington DC USA.

  • Nuernberg K. Nuernberg G. Dannenberger D. (2011). Effect of extruded linseed on growth and lipids of muscle and back fat in pigs. Fleischwirtschaft 91: 88-92.

  • Ronald P.M. Martijn B.K. (1989). Effect ofadiet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 436-441.

  • Simopoulos A.P. (2008). The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Med. 233: 674-688.

  • Sobol M. Skiba G. Raj S. (2015). Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on its deposition in the body of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 208: 107-118.

  • Sullivan Z.M. Honeyman M.S. Gibson L.R. Prusa K.J. (2007). Effects of triticale-based diets on finishing pig performance and pork quality in deep-bedded hoop barns. Meat Sci. 76: 428-437.

  • Tinker L.F. Parks E.J. Behr S.R. Schneeman B.O. Davis P.A. (1999). (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in moderately hypertriglyceridemic adults changes postprandial lipid and apolipoprotein Bresponses toastandardized test meal. J. Nutr. 129: 1126-1134.

  • Tous N. Lizardo R. Vilà B. Gispert M. Font-i- Furnols M. Esteve-Garcia E. (2013). Effect ofahigh dose of CLAin finishing pig diets on fat deposition and fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat and other fat depots. Meat Sci. 93: 517-524.

  • Weststrate J.A. Meijer G.W. (1998). Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total-and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 334-343.

  • Wood J.D. Enser M. Fisher A.V. Nute G.R. Sheard P.R. Richardson R.I. Hug- hes S.I. Whittington F.M. (2008). Fat deposition fatty acid composition and meat quality: Areview. Meat Sci. 78: 343-358.

  • Zunft H.J.F. Lüder W. Harde A. Haber B. Graubaum H.J. Koebnick G. Grün- wald J. (2003). Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble fibre lowers total and LDLcholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients. Eur. J. Nutr. 42: 235-242.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.515
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.246

CiteScore 2018: 1.4

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.509
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.869

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 622 382 12
PDF Downloads 384 255 12