The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dietary level of two types of inulin differing in the degree of polymerization (DP) on microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks. The experiment was performed on 70 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks divided into 7 groups fed starter-type diets without inulin addition or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% of inulin with DP≥10 (IN10), or DP≥23 (IN23). After 14 days of feeding birds were sacrificed to collect digesta samples from caeca and colon. Caecal digesta was examined for pH, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and amines, activities of β-glucosidase and mucinase, and relative amount of selected bacterial populations, whereas in colonic digesta only pH, SCFA and amines were analysed. Regardless of DP, inulin level did not affect digesta pH, activity of bacterial enzymes and relative amounts of Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and E. coli populations. Dietary level of IN10 significantly affected propionic acid concentration, which was greater in caecal digesta of birds fed diet supplemented with 0.2% of IN10 compared to other groups and feeding diets supplemented with all levels of IN10 significantly reduced histamine concentration compared to the control. There were no effects of inulin on microbial activity indices in the colon. The present study indicates that, regardless of DP, inulin does not modify considerably microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Allison C. Macfarlane G.T. (1989). Influence of p H nutrient availability and growth rate on amine production by Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 2894-2898.
Alloui M.N. Szczurek W. Świ ątkiewicz S. (2013). The usefulness of prebiotics and probiotics in modern poultry nutrition: review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 1: 17-32.
Almagro-Moreno S. Pruss K. Taylor R.K. (2015). Intestinal colonization dynamics of Vibrio cholerae. PLo S Pathogens 11 e1004787.
Amit-Romach E. Sklan D. Uni Z. (2004). Microflora ecology of the chicken intestine using 16Sribosomal DNAprimers. Poultry Sci. 83: 1093-1098.
Apajalahti J. Kettunen A. Graham H. (2004). Characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbial communities with special reference to the chicken. World Poultry Sci. J. 60: 223-232.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (2000). Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC Arlington VA.
Bailey S.R. Marr C.M. Elliott J. (2003). Identification and quantification of amines in the equine cecum. Res. Vet. Sci. 74: 113-118.
Barszcz M.Taciak M. Skomiał J. (2011). Adose-response effects of tannic acid and protein on growth performance caecal fermentation colon morphology and β-glucuronidase activity of rats. J. Anim. Feed. Sci. 20: 613-625.
Biggs P. Parsons C. Fahey G.C. (2007). The effect of oligosaccharides on growth performance nutrient utilization and caecal microbes in young chicks. Poultry Sci. 86: 2327-2336.
Cao B.H. Karasawa Y. Guo Y. M. (2005). Effects of green tea polyphenols and fructooligosacharides in semi purified diets on broiler performance and cecal microflora and their metabolites. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 18: 85-89.
Corrier D.E.A. Nisbet D.J. Scanlan C.M. Hollister A.G. Deloach J.R. (1995). Control of Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chicks withacontinuous-flow characterized mixed culture of cecal bacteria. Poultry Sci. 74: 916-924.
Crawford C. Sepulveda M.F. Elliott J. Harris P.A. Bailey S.R. (2007). Dietary fructan carbohydrate increases amine production in the equine large intestine: Implications for pastureassociated laminitis. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 2949-2958.
Desrouillères K. Millette M. Vu K.D. Touja R. Lacroix M. (2015). Cancer preventive effects ofaspecific probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 L. casei LBC80Rand L. rhamnosus CLR2 on male F344 rats treated with 12-dimethylhydrazine. J. Funct. Foods 17: 816-827.
Ganguly S. (2013). Supplementation of prebiotics probiotics and acids on immunity in poultry feed: a brief review. World Poultry Sci. J. 69: 639-648.
Huyghebaert G. Ducatelle R. Van Immerseel F. (2011). An update on alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for broilers. Vet. J. 187: 182-188.
Juśkiewicz J. Zduńczyk Z. Jankowski J. (2004). Selected parameters of gastrointestinal tract metabolism of turkeys fed diets with flavomycin and different inulin content. World Poultry Sci. 60: 177-185.
Juśkiewicz J. Jankowski J. Zduńczyk Z. Mikulski D. (2006). Performance and gastrointestinal tract metabolism of turkeys fed diets with different contents of fructooligosaccharides. Poultry Sci. 85: 886-891.
Kastner S. Perreten V. Bleuler H. Hugenschmidt G. Lacroix Ch. Meile L. (2006). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and resistance genes of starter cultures and probiotic bacteria used in food. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 145-155.
Kaufmann P. Pfefferkorn A. Teuber M. Meile L. (1997). Identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium species isolated from food with genus-specific 16Sr RNAtargeted probes by colony hybridization and PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1268-1273.
Kim G.B. Seo Y.M. Kim C.H. Paik I.K. (2011). Effect of dietary prebiotic supplementation on the performance intestinal microflora and immune response of broilers. Poultry Sci. 90: 75-82.
Li W. Zhang J. Yu Ch. Li Q. Dong F. Wang G. Gu G. Guo Z. (2015). Extraction degree of polymerization determination and prebiotic effect evaluation of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke. Carbohyd. Polym. 121: 315-319.
Madrigal L. Sangronis E. (2007). Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 57: 387-396
Mookiah S. Sieo C.C. Ramasamy K. Abdullah N. Ho Y.W. (2014). Effects of dietary prebiotics probiotic and symbiotic on performance caecal bacterial populations and caecal fermentation concentrations of broiler chickens. J. Sci. Food Agri. 94: 341-348.
Nabizadeh A. (2012). The effect of inulin on broiler chicken intestinal microflora gut morphology and performance. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 21: 725-734.
Önal A. Tekkeli S. Önal C. (2013). Areview of the liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of biogenic amines in foods. Food Chem. 138: 509-515.
Rada V. Duscova D. Maroune M. Peter J. (2001). Enrichment of Bifidobacteria in the hen caeca by dietary inulin. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) 46: 73-75.
Rebolé A. Ortiz L.T. Rodriguez M.L. Alzueta C. Treviño J. Velasco S. (2010). Effects of inulin and enzyme complex individually or in combination on growth performance intestinal microflora cecal fermentation characteristics and jejunal histomorphology in broiler chickens fedawheat- and barley-based diet. Poultry Sci. 89: 276-286.
Rehman H. Hellweg P. Taras D. Zentek J. (2008). Effect of dietary inulin on the intestinal short chain fatty acids and microbial ecology in broiler chickens as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Poultry Sci. 87: 783-789.
Rehman H.C. Rosenkranz C. B ölem J. Zentek J. (2007). Dietary inulin affects the morphology but not sodium dependent glucose and glutamine transport in the jejunum of broilers. Poultry Sci. 86: 118-122.
Roberfroid M.B. (2000). Chicory fructooligosaccharides and the gastrointesinal tract. Nutrition 16: 677-679.
Roland N. Nugon- Baudon L. Rabot S. (1993). Interactions between the intestinal flora and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and their health consequences. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 74: 123-148.
Sauvant D. Perez J.M. Tran G. (Eds). (2004). Tables of Composition and Nutritional Value of Feed Materials. Wageningen Academic Publishers (The Netherlands) and INRA Paris (France).
Shiau S.-Y. Chang G.W. (1983). Effects of dietary fiber on fecal mucinase and β glucuronidase activity in rats. J. Nut. 113: 138-144.
Smulikowska S. Rutkowski A. (2005). Recommended Allowances and Nutritive Value of Feedstuffs - Poultry Feeding Standards (in Polish). 5th Edition The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition PAS Jabłonna Poland.
Sugiharto S. (2014). Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. doi:
Taciak M. Barszcz M. Tuśnio A. Bachanek I. Pastuszewska B. Skomia ł J. (2015). Effects of type of protein and fibre fermented in vitro with different pig inocula on the shortchain fatty acids and amines concentrations. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 24: 235-243.
Tako E. Glahn R.P. Welch R.M. Lei X. Yasuda K. Miller D.D. (2008). Dietary inulin affects the expression of intestinal enterocyte iron transporters receptors and storage protein and alters the microbiota in the pig intestine. Br. J. Nutr. 99: 472-480.
Terada A. Hara H. Sakamoto J. Sato N. Takagi S. Mitsuoka T. Mino R. Hara K. Fujimori I. Yumada T. (1994). Effect of dietary supplementation with lactosucrose on caecal flora caecal metabolites and performance in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 73: 1663-1672.
Thompson J.L. Hinton M. (1997). Antibacterial activity of formic and propionic acids in the diet of hens on Salmonellas in the crop. Br. Poultry Sci. 38: 59-65.
Topping D.L. Clifton P.M. (2001). Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol. Rev. 81: 1031-1064.
Tsen H.Y. Lin C.K. Chi W.R. (1998). Development and use of 16Sr RNAgene targeted PCRprimers for the identification of Escherichia coli cells in water. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85: 554-560.
Valeri M. Rossi P.S. Kasendra M. Nesta B. Serino L. Pizza M. Soriani M. (2015). Pathogenic E. coli exploits Ss IEmucinase activity to translocate through the musocal barrier and access to host cells. PLo S One. 10:e0117486.
Van der Wielen P.W.J.J. Biesterveld S. Notermans S. Hofstra H. Urlings A.P. Van Knapen F. (2000). Role of volatile fatty acids in development of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2536-2540.
Veldman A. Veen W.A.G. Barug D. Wan Paridon P.A. (1993). Effect of α-galactosides and α-galactosidase in feed on ileal piglet digestive physiology. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nut. 69: 57-65.
Vergauwen R. Van Laere A. Van Den Ende W. (2003). Properties of fructan: fructan 1-frucrosyltransferases from chicory and globe thistle two Asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin. Plant. Physiol. 133: 391-401.
Wang R.F. Cao W.W. Cerniglia C.E. (1996). PCRdetection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1242-1247.
Windey K. De Preter V. Verbeke K. (2012). Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 56: 184-196.
Zduńczyk Z. Juśkiewicz J. Jankowski J. Biedrzycka E. Koncicki A. (2005). Metabolic response of gastrointestinal tract of turkeys to diets with different level of mannan-oligosaccharide. Poultry Sci. 84: 903-909.
Zhao P.Y. Wang J.P. Kim I.H. (2013). Effect of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance meat quality relative organ weight cecal microflora and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 5287-5294.
Zhu X.Y. Zhong T. Pandya Y. Joerger R.D. (2002). 16Sr RNA-based analysis of microbiota from cecum of broiler chickens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 124-137.