Genetic Basis of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle – A Review / Podstawy Genetyczne Odporności Krów Mlecznych Na Zapalenie Wymienia – Artykuł Przeglądowy

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Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most important mammary gland diseases impacting lactating animals. Resistance to this disease could be improved by breeding. There are several selection methods for mastitis resistance. To improve the natural genetic resistance of cows in succeeding generations, current breeding programmes use somatic cell count and clinical mastitis cases as resistance traits. However, these methods of selection have met with limited success. This is partly due to the complex nature of the disease. The limited progress in improving udder health by conventional selection procedures requires applying information on molecular markers of mastitis susceptibility in marker-assisted selection schemes. Mastitis is under polygenic control, so there are many genes that control this trait in many loci. This review briefly describes genome-wide association studies which have been carried out to identify quantitative trait loci associated with mastitis resistance in dairy cattle worldwide. It also characterizes the candidate gene approach focus on identifying genes that are strong candidates for the mastitis resistance trait. In the conclusion of the paper we focus our attention on future research which should be conducted in the field of the resistance to mastitis.

Streszczenie

Zapalenie wymienia (mastitis) jest jedną z najważniejszych chorób bydła mlecznego. Poprawa odporności na tę chorobę jest możliwa dzięki wykorzystaniu metod hodowlanych. Aby poprawić odporność krów mlecznych na mastitis, dopuszczalne jest wykorzystanie kilku metod selekcyjnych, które zostały omówione pokrótce w niniejszej pracy. Programy hodowlane, obecnie stosowane na świecie, wykorzystują jako kryterium selekcyjne zwierząt odpornych na mastitis, liczbę komórek somatycznych w mleku krów lub częstość występowania przypadków klinicznych. Programy te jednak tylko częściowo przyczyniły się do poprawy odporności krów na zapalenie wymienia. Jednym z powodów małej ich efektywności jest złożona etiologia tej choroby. Aby zwiększyć efektywność programów hodowlanych w odniesieniu do odporności na mastitis, w ostatnich latach podjęto badania nad markerami genetycznymi tej choroby i ich wykorzystaniem w selekcji wspomaganej markerami. Na zapalenie wymienia wpływa wiele genów. W niniejszej pracy dokonano przeglądu badań nad poszukiwaniem markerów związanych z odpornością na mastitis i genów do niej kandydujących. W podsumowaniu wskazano kierunki dalszych badań.

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Annals of Animal Science

The Journal of National Research Institute of Animal Production

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IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.731

CiteScore 2016: 0.79

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