Frequency of occurrence of physical defects in turkey poults / Częstotliwość występowania wad budowy piskląt indyczych

Open access


The objective of this study was to determine poult quality in the first breeding season of turkeys. The study was conducted over a 24-week laying season of white broad-breasted Big 6 turkeys. Starting from the first week of laying, at three-week intervals, 504 eggs laid on the same day were weighed and the percentages of eggs weighing 70 to 100 g and more than 100 g were calculated. Results from the 21st week of laying season were not used due to failure of ventilation equipment. Each egg was visually inspected to determine the percentages of eggs with normal shell structure, rough-shelled eggs and eggs without shell pigmentation. Nine incubation cycles were carried out. Egg fertilization rates and hatch rates were determined. At the end of each incubation cycle, poults were weighed individually and divided into morphologically normal and morphologically defective. The latter were further subdivided into weak poults with poor motor skills, poults with abnormal feathers, eyes, legs and umbilicus, and poults with unabsorbed yolk sacs. Eggs with weight exceeding 100 g accounted for 17.9% and 46.6% of the analysed eggs at 12 and 24 weeks of the laying season, respectively. In week 12, eggs without shell pigmentation accounted for 8.3%. In week 24, the percentage of rough-shelled eggs was 6.7%. Most poults with physical defects hatched in weeks 1 and 3 of the laying period (65.67% and 76.84%, respectively). Weak poults with poor motor skills accounted for 0.2-2.5% of the examined birds. Wet feathers were noted in 0.9% to 4.1% of poults over the laying season. Leg abnormalities were observed in 6.5% to 7.8% of poults. Eye defects were encountered least frequently. In 41-70% of poults long black scabs were visible on their navels, and umbilical vessels were long. Unabsorbed yolk sacs were noted in 0.5% to 3.2% of poults.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Borzemska W. (2005). Pathology of hatching and the period before hatch (in Polish). In: Diseases of poultry. Mazurkiewicz M. (ed.). PWRi L Wrocław pp. 69-124.

  • Boerjan M. (2006). Chick vitality and uniformity. Int. Hatch. Practice 20: 7-8.

  • Fasenko G.M. O ’ Dea E.E. (2008). Evaluating broiler growth and mortality in chicks with minor navel conditions at hatching. Poultry Sci. 87: 594-597. Hybrid. A Hendrix Genetics Company (2008). Cull eggs: What to expect and how to reduce the incidence. INFO Sheet.

  • Lilburn M.S. Antonelli A. (2012). The effects of genotype on embryonic development in eggs from divergent turkey genotypes. Poultry Sci. 91: 823-828.

  • Mather C.M. Laughlin K.F. (1979). Storage of hatching eggs: the interaction between parental age and early embryonic development. Br. Poult. Sci. 20: 595-604.

  • Mauldin M.J. Buhr R.J. (1996). Chick abnormalities caused by hatchery conditions. World Poultry 12: 39-42.

  • Mróz E. (1998). Studies on the variability of surface characteristics of egg shells in turkey and their relationship to hatchability (in Polish). Dissertations and monographs 4 ART. Olsztyn.

  • Mróz E. (2010). Current problems of the reproduction turkeys (in Polish). In: Current problems in the pathology of poultry with particular reference to embryo pathology and the period before hatch. Wieliczka A. AFPHof Elma Wrocław pp. 32-48.

  • Mróz E. Orłowska A. (2009). Quality of heavy-type turkey poults as related to the age of layers in the first laying season. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 27: 207-215.

  • Mróz E. Michalak K. Orłowska A. (2007). Embryo mortality and poult quality depend on the shell structure of turkey hatching eggs. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 25: 161-172.

  • Nangsuay A. Ruangpanit Y. Meijerhof R. Attamangkune S. (2011). Yolk absorption and embryo development of small and large eggs originating from young and old breeder hens. Poultry. Sci. 90: 2648-2655.

  • National Poultry Council - Chamber of Commerce in Warsaw. (2012). Results of poultry performance testing in 2011 (in Polish). Warszawa.

  • Nestor K.E. Anderson J.W. Patterson R.A. Velleman S.G. (2008). Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 17. Changes in genetic parameters over forty generations of selection for increased sixteen-week body weight. Poultry Sci. 87: 1971-1979.

  • Rosario C.C. Lopez C.C. Tellez I.G. Navarro O.A. Anderson R.C. Eslava C.C. (2004). Serotyping and virulence genes detection in Escherichia coli isolated from fertile and infertile eggs dead-in-shell embryos and chickens with yolk sac infection. Avian Diseases 48: 791-802.

  • Shanawany M.M. (1987). Hatching weight in relation to egg weight in domestic birds. World Poultry Sci. J. 43: 107-115.

  • Tona K. Bamelis F. De Ketelaere D. Bruggeman V. Moraes V.M.B. Buyse J. Onagbesan O. Decuypere E. (2003). Effects of egg storage time on spread of hatch chick quality and chick juvenile growth. Poultry Sci. 82: 736-741.

  • Tona K. Onagbesan O. De Ketelaere D. Decuypere E. Bruggeman V. (2004). Effects of age of broiler breeders and egg storage on egg quality hatchability chick quality chick weight and chick posthatch growth to forty-two days. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13: 10-18.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.515
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.246

CiteScore 2018: 1.4

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.509
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.869

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 144 68 2
PDF Downloads 76 46 0