The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a wide range of anthropometric parameters with BMD in normal-weight women: handball players and healthy untrained students. Thirteen former female handball players, (age 21.2±0.9 years, body mass 64.2±6.1 kg, training experience 6.7±2.4 years) and 51 randomly selected untrained students (age 20.6±1.2 years, body mass 58.1±6.8 kg), were examined. The anthropometric measurements included 16 variables. BMD was measured on the radius of the non-dominant hand at distal and proximal points with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a Norland pDEXA densitometer. Relationships between BMD and anthropometric variables were assessed in 64 normal-weight women (BMI≥18.5 and ≤ 24.99 kg/m2), by calculating Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. We found a significant positive relationship between bone mass characteristics and biacromial breadth (0.30-0.53), calf (0.28-0.47) and arm (0.27-0.42) girth corrected, and lean body mass (LBM) (kg) (0.38-0.61) and (%) (0,27) in the group of normal-weight women. The student groups were significantly different (analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc test, p<0.001) in BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and Z-score at both measured points. The former handball players were also characterized by higher body mass and LBM (kg), as well as corrected body girths and biacromial breadth (p<0.001), compared to untrained students. The groups did not differ significantly in body height or total fat. The morphological profile of the female handball players is conducive to BMD. Skeletal characteristics and muscle tissue had a significant beneficial effect on bone mineral characteristics in young women with normal weight.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Arazi H Eghbali E Saeedi T Moghadam R. 2016. The relationship of physical activity and anthropometric and physiological characteristics to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Clin Densitom 19(3):382-88.
Baxter-Jones AD Faulkner RA Forwood MR Mirwald RL Bailey DA. 2011. Bone mineral accrual from 8 to 30 years of age: an estimation of peak bone mass. J Bone Miner Res 26:1729–39.
Bayios IA Bergeles NK Apostolidis NG Noutsos KS Koskolou MD. 2006. Anthropo-metric body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball volleyball and handball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 46:271–80.
Boshnjaku A Dimauro I Krasniqi E Grazioli E Tschan H Migliaccio S. Di Luigi L. Caporossi D. 2015. Effect of sport training on forearm bone sites in handball and soccer female players. J Sport Med Phys Fit 56(12):1503-10.
Chowdhury B Bandyopadhyay S. 2014. Contribution of predicted skeletal mass and fat mass by anthropometric methods in determining bone mineral density in elderly Indian women. Int J Med Sci Public Health 3(6):727-29.
Durnin JV Womersley J. 1974. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr 32(1):77-97.
de Lima LRA de Rosso Krug R da Silva RCR de Carvalho AP González-Chica DA de Carlos Back I Petroski EL. 2016. Prediction of areal bone mineral density and bone mineral content in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. J Clin Densitom 19(4):457-64.
Granados C Izquierdo M Ibanez J Bonnabau H Gorostiaga EM. 2007. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur female handball players. Int J Sports Med 28(10):860-67.
Hasan AA Reilly T Cable NT Ramadan J. 2007. Anthropometric profiles of elite Asian female handball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 47:197–02.
Hornstrup T Wikman JM Fristrup B Póvoas S Helge EW Nielsen SH Helge JW Andersen JL Nybo L Krustrup P. 2018. Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained women—A cross-disciplinary RCT on physiological adaptations and motivational aspects. J Sport Health Sci 7(2):139-48
Kohrt WM Barry DW Schwartz RS. 2009. Muscle forces or gravity: what predominates mechanical loading on bone? Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(11):2050-55.
Kutáč P Gajda V. 2011. Evaluation of accuracy of the body composition measurements by the BIA method. Hum Mov 12(1):41–45. doi: 10.2478/v10038-010-0027-x.
Lloyd JT Alley DE Hawkes WG Hochberg MC Waldstein SR Orwig DL. 2014. Body mass index is positively associated with bone mineral density in US older adults. Arch Osteoporos 9(1):175.
Liu L Maruno R Mashimo T Sanka K Higuchi T Hayashi K Shirasaki Y Mukai N Saitoh S Tokuyama K. 2003. Effects of physical training on cortical bone at midtibia assessed by peripheral QCT. J Appl Physiol 95(1):219-24.1Institute of Health and Sport Sciences University of Tsukuba Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8574; and 2National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8564 Japan Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: K. Tokuyama Institute of Health and Sport Sciences Univ. of Tsukuba Tennodai 1-1-1 Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8574 Japan (E-mail: E-mail Address: email@example.com). Search for more papers by this author
Liu PY Ilich JZ Brummel-Smith K Ghosh S. 2014. New insight into fat muscle and bone relationship in women: determining the threshold at which body fat assumes negative relationship with bone mineral density. Int J Prev Med 5(11):1452-63.
International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment protocol published by the The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). 2001 p. 37 file:/C:/Users/Wlasciciel/Desktop/ISAK%20protokół.pdf
Michalsik LB Madsen K Aagaard P. 2014. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players. Int J Sports Med 35(07):595-607.
Moss SL McWhannell N Michalsik LB Twist C. 2015. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite elite and non-elite youth female team handball players. J Sports Sci 33(17):1780-89.
Mrabet BD Selmi A Abdelkefi M Mbarek M Sahli H Sellami S. 2013. Study of bone mineral density in adolescent handball players: a study of 20 cases. Tunis Med 91(11):633-37.
Nikander R Sievänen H Heinonen A Kannus P. 2005. Femoral neck structure in adult female athletes subjected to different loading modalities. J Bone Miner Res 20(3):520-28.
Nikander R Kannus P Dastidar P Hannula M Harrison L Cervinka T Narra NG Aktour R Arola T Eskola H Soimakallio S Heinonen A Hyttinen J Sievanen H. 2009. Targeted exercises against hip fragility. Osteoporos Int 20(8):1321–28.
National Institutes of Health. 1998. Clinical guidelines on the identification evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. Obes Res 6(2):51S-209S.
Pastuszak A Buśko K Kalka E. 2016. Somatotype and body composition of volleyball players and untrained female students – reference group for comparison in sport. Anthropological review 79(4):461–70.
Süel E. 2015. The Effect of Skill-Based Maximal Intensity Training on Power Agility and Speed (PAS) in Female Team Sport Players. The Anthropologist 21(1-2):120-28.
Turner CH Robling AG. 2003. Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31(1):45-50.
Weaver CM Gordon CM Janz KF Kalkwarf HJ Lappe JM Lewis R O’Karma M Wallace TC Zemel BS. 2016. The National Osteoporosis Foundation’s position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: a systematic review and implementation recommendations. Osteoporosis Int 27(4):1281-86.
Vila H Manchado C Rodriguez N Abraldes JA Alcaraz PE Ferragut C. 2012. Anthropometric profile vertical jump and throwing velocity in elite female handball players by playing positions. J Strength Cond Res 26(8):2146-55. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823b0a46
Weidauer LA Eilers MM Binkley TL Vukovich MD Specker BL. 2012. Effect of different collegiate sports on cortical bone in the tibia. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 12(2):68–73.
Wang L Wang W Xu L Cheng X Ma Y Liu D Guo Z Su Y Wang Q. 2013. Relation of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue to bone mineral density in chinese women. Int J Endocrinol 2013:378632.
Zhu K Hunter M James A Lim EM Walsh JP. 2015. Associations between body mass index lean and fat body mass and bone mineral density in middle-aged Australians: The Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. Bone 74:146-52.