Socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of Assam, North- east India

Melody Seb Rengma 1 , Kaushik Bose 2 ,  and Nitish Mondal 3
  • 1 Department of Anthropology, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
  • 2 Department of Anthropology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
  • 3 Department of Anthropology, Assam University (Diphu Campus), Karbi Anglong, Assam, India

Abstract

The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls) adolescents (aged 10-18 years) belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). According to WHO, HAZ found to be <−2SD was classified as stunting. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, chi-square analyses, binary and step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis in SPSS (version, 17.0). The prevalence of stunting was observed to be significantly higher among boys (48.4%) than girls (37.8%) (p<0.01). Age-sex specific prevalence was found to be higher among boys than girls aged 14-18 years and contrary were observed among girls aged 10-14 years (p>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys), age groups (13-15 years and 16-18 years), father’s occupation (cultivator) and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abudayya AH, Stigum H, Shi Z, Abed Y, Holmboe-Ottesen G. 2009. Sociodemographic correlates of food habits among school adolescents (12-15 year) in North Gaza Strip. BMC Public Health 9:185.

  • Anand K, Kant S, Kapoor SK. 1999. Nutritional Status of Adolescent School Children in Rural North India. Indian Pediatr 36:810-5.

  • Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J; Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. 2008. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 371:243-60.

  • Blössner M, de Onis M. 2005. Malnutrition: quantifying the health impact at national and local levels. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005 (Environmental burden of diseases series no. 12).

  • Bose K, Biswas S, Bisai S, Ganguli S, Khatun A, Mukhopadhyay A, Bhadra M. 2007. Stunting, underweight andwasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3-5 years of Chapra,Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Matern Child Nutr 3:216-21.

  • Das DK, Biswas R. 2005. Nutritional status of adolescent girls in a rural area of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. Indian J Public Health 49:18-21.

  • Das P, Ray SK, Joardar GK, Dasgupta S. 2007. Nutritional profiles of adolescents in a rural community of Hooghly district in West Bengal. Indian J Public Health 51:120-1.

  • Deshmukh PR, Gupta SS, Bharambe MS, Dongre AR, Maliye C, Kaur S, Garg BS. 2006. Nutritional status of adolescents in rural Wardha. Indian J Pediatr 73:139-41.

  • Haboubi GJ, Shaikh RB. 2009. A Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Adolescents from Selected Schools of South India and UAE: A Cross-sectional Study. Indian J Community Med 34:108-11.

  • Hall JG, Allanson JE, Gripp KW, Slavotinek AM. 2007. Handbook of Physical Measurements. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Harris EF, Smith RN. 2009. Accounting for measurement error: a critical but often overlooked process. Arch Oral Biol 54:S107-17.

  • Herrador Z, Sordo L, Gadisa E, Moreno J, Nieto J, Benito A, Aseffa A, Cañavate C, Custodio E. 2014. Cross-Sectional Study of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among School Aged Children in Rural and Urban Settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem Districts, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 9:e105880.

  • Hien NN, Hoa NN. 2009. Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean, Vietnam. Pak J Nutr 8:958-64.

  • Indian Genome Variation Consortium. 2008. Genetic landscape of the people of India: A canvas for disease gene exploration. J Genet 87:3-20.

  • Keino S, Plasqui G, Ettyang G, van den Borne B. 2014. Determinants of stunting and overweight among young children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Nutr Bull 35:167-78.

  • Kumar N, Shekhar C, Kumar P, Kundu AS. 2007. Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale-updating for 2007. Indian J Pediatr 74:1131-2.

  • Leal VS, Lira PI, Menezes RC, Oliveira JS, Sequeira LA, Andrade SL, Batista Filho M. 2012. Factors associated with the decline in stunting among children and adoles cents in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 46:234-41.

  • Lwanga, SK, Lemeshow S. 1991. Sample size determination in health studies: A Practical Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Mahgoub SEO, Nnyepi M, Bandeke T. 2006. Factors affecting prevalence of malnutrition among children under three years of age in Botswana. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 6:1.

  • Maiti S, De D, Chatterjee K, Jana K, Ghosh D, Paul S. 2011. Prevalence of stunting and thinness among early adolescent school girls of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. Int J Biol Med Res 2:781-83.

  • Malhotra A, Passi SJ. 2007. Diet quality and nutritional status of rural adolescent girl beneficiaries of ICDS in North India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:S8-16.

  • Mandot S, Mandot D, Sonesh JK. 2009. Nutritional status of tribal (Garasia) school children of Sirohi district, Rajasthan Indian Pediatr 46:437-8.

  • Medhi GK, Barua A, Mahanta J. 2006. Growth and Nutritional Status of School Age Children (6-14 Years) of Tea Garden Worker of Assam. J Hum Ecol 19:83-85.

  • Medhi GK, Hazarika NC, Mahanta J. 2007. Nutritional status of adolescents among tea garden workers. Indian J Pediatr 74:343-7.

  • Mondal N, Sen, J. 2010a. Prevalence of under- nutrition among children (5-12 years) belonging to three communities residing in a similar habitat in North Bengal, India. Ann Hum Biol 37:199-217.

  • Mondal N, Sen J. 2010b. Prevalence of stunting and thinness among rural adolescents of Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India. Italian J Pub Health 8:54-61.

  • Mondal N, Basumatary B, Kropi J, Bose K. 2015. Prevalence of double burden ofmalnutrition among urban school going Bodo children aged 5-11 years of Assam, Northeast India. Epidemiol Biostatistics Public Health 12:e11497(1-10).

  • Mushtaq MU, Gull S, Khurshid U, Shahid U, Shad MA, Siddiqui AM. 2011. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. BMC Public Health 11:790. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nandy S, Irving M, Gordon D, Subramanian SV, Smith GD.2005.Poverty, child undernutrition and morbidity: new evidence from India. Bull World Health Organ 83:210-16.

  • Parasuraman S, Kishor, S, Singh SK, Vaidehi Y. 2009. A Profile of Youth in India. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005-06. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF Macro.

  • Prashant K, Shaw C. 2009. Nutritional status of adolescent girls from an urban slum area in South India. Indian J Pediatr 76:501-4.

  • Prendergast AJ, Humphrey JH. 2014. The stunting syndrome in developing countries. Paediatr Int Child Health 34:250-65.

  • Rao KM, Laxmaiah A, Venkaiah K, Brahmam GN. 2006. Diet and nutritional status of adolescent tribal population in nine states of India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 15:64-71.

  • Rengma MS, Sen J, Mondal N. 2015. Socio- Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Adults of Northeast India. Ethiop J Health Sci 25:199-208.

  • Savanur MS, Ghugre PS. 2016. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study. Public Health Nutr 19:1389-96.

  • Saxena Y, Saxena V. 2011. Nutritional Status in Rural Adolescent Girls Residing at Hills of Garhwal in India (2009). Internet J Med Update 6:3-8.

  • Sen J, Mondal N. 2012. Socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Ann Hum Biol 39:129-36.

  • Sen J, Roy A, Mondal N. 2010. Association of Maternal Nutritional Status, Body Composition and Socio-economic Variables with Low Birth Weight in India. J Trop Pedtr 56:254-9.

  • Mondal, N, Terangpi M. 2014. Prevalence of undernutrition among tribal adolescents of KarbiAnglong district of Assam, Northeast India. Sri Lanka J Child Health 43:154-58.

  • Shivaramakrishna HR, Deepa AV, Sarithareddy M. 2011. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study. Al Ame J Med Sci 4:243-6.

  • Tigga PL, Sen J, Mondal N. 2015. Association of some socio-economic and socio-demographic variables with wasting among pre-school children of North Bengal, India. Ethiop J Health Sci 25:63-72.

  • Touitou Y, Portaluppi F, Smolensky MH, Rensing L. 2014. Ethical principles and standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research. Chronoboil Int 21:161-70.

  • Ulijaszek SJ, Kerr DA. 1999. Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. Br J Nutr 82:165-77.

  • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2011. The state of the World’s children 2011; Adolescence, An Age of Opportunity. New York: UNICEF.

  • Venkaiah K, Damayanti K, Nayak MU, Vijayaraghavan K. 2002. Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:1119-25.

  • Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C, Hallal PC, Martorell R, Richter L, Sachdev HS, Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. 2008. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet 371:340-57.

  • Wamani H, Astrom A, Peterson S, Tumwine J, Tylleskar T. 2007. Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta- analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys. BMC Pediatrics 7:17.

  • World Health Organization (WHO). 1995. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical Report Series No. 854. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • World Health Organization (WHO).2007. WHO child growth standards: head circumference-for-age, arm circumference- forage, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age: methods and development. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007, available: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/second_set/technical_report_2/en/.

  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Zelellw DA, Gebreigziabher BG, Alene KA, Negatie BA, Kasahune TA. 2014. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Stunting Among Schoolchildren, in Debre Markos Town and Gozamen Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, 2013. J Nutr Food Sci S8:007.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search