The risk for falls in older people in the context of objective functional studies

Open access

Abstract

Falls may occur in each ontogenesis phase, but they become more frequent in the elderly and lead to serious health consequences. Dynamic changes in senior citizens’ environment and lifestyle makes studies of risk for falls necessary. To determine the relationship between the risk for falls and the objective functional and structural examination in the elderly living in Poland. The research consisted of 196 females and 61 males aged 60-88 recruited from health clinics, senior citizen centers and Universities of the Third Age between 2009-2012. Following parameters were collected: functional physical tests “30 second Chair Stand Test” and Timed Up and Go Test”, the flexor muscles and knee extensors force, the bone mineral density was measured in distal radius of the forearm with the EXA - 3000, the total risk for fall assessed by 5 tests by abbreviated version of Fallscreen test. Multiple linear regression and linear correlation were used for assessment of relationship with total estimated risk for fall and other parameters. The subjects displayed significant dimorphic differences within the range of the functional parameters and bone mineral density to the advantage of males. Only in women results revealed a significant link between the risk for falls and the dynamic balance, as well as the maximum quadricep muscle force equal. Strength of the lower limb muscles seems to be critical for decreasing the risk for fall. Special programs for strengthening this part of the body for older people should be elaborate.

Baczkowicz D, Szczegielniak J, Proszkowiec M. 2008. Zależności między stabilnością postawy, funkcją chodu a upadkami osób w wieku podeszłym - doniesienia wstępne. Relations between postural stability, gait and falls in elderly persons - preliminary report. Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja 10:473-80.

Błaszczyk JW, Czerwosz L. 2005. Stabilność posturalna w procesie starzenia. Gerontologia Polska 13(1):25-36. (in Polish)

Campbell AJ, Borrie MJ, Spears GF. 1989. Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. J Gerontol 44:M112-M7.

Carter ND, Kannus P, Khan KM. 2001. Exercise in the prevention of falls in older people: a systematic literature review examining the rationale and the evidence. Sports Med 31:427-38.

Cummings SR, Nevitt MC. 1989. A hypothesis: the causes of hip fractures. J Gerontol 44:M107-M11.

Czerwiński E, Borowy P, Jasiak B. 2006. Współczesne zasady zapobiegania upadkom z wykorzystaniem rehabilitacji. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 4:380-87. (in Polish)

Czerwiński E, Kumorek A, Milert A, Borowy P. 2008. Przyczyny upadków kobiet w populacji krakowskiej. Causes of falls in women in Krakow population. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 10:429-40. (in Polish)

Davis JC, Marra CA, Liu-Ambrose TY. 2011. Falls-related self-efficacy is independently associated with quality-adjusted life years in older women. Age and Ageing 40:340-46.

Etman A, Wijlhuizen GJ, van Heuvelen MJ, Chorus A, Hopman-Rock M. 2012. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure). Age and Ageing 41:190-5.

Ignasiak Z, Rożek K, Skrzek A, Sławińska T, Domaradzki J, Fugiel J, Posłuszny P. 2012. Assessment of involution changes in selected aspects of biological condition of the elderly. Studia i Monografie AWF Wrocław 109.

Kemmler W, von Stengel S, Engelke K, Häberle L, Kalender WA. 2010. Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors, and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study. Arch Intern Med 170:179-85.

Leipzig RM, Cumming RG, Tinetti ME. 1999. Drugs and falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis: I. Psychotropic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 47:30-9.

Lord SR, Castell S, Corcoran J, Dayhew J, Matters B, Shan A, et al. 2003. The effect of group exercise on physical functioning and falls in frail older people living in retirement villages: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1685-92.

Lord SR, Lloyd DG, Li SK. 1996. Sensori- motor function, gait patterns and falls in community-dwelling women. Age and Ageing 25:292-9.

Lord SR, Menz HB, Tiedemann A. 2003. A physiological profile approach to falls risk assessment and prevention. Phys Ther 83:237-52.

Lord SR, Ward JA, Williams P, Anstey KJ. 1994. Physiological factors associated with falls in older community-dwelling women. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:1110-7.

Maciaszek J, Osiński W, Stemplewski R, Salamon A, Szeklicki R. 2002. A posturography study of balance in physically active young, adult and older women. J Hum Kinet 8:69-75.

Ostrowska B, Giemza C, Wojna D, Skrzek A. 2007. Postural stability and body posture in older women: comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 10:486-95. (in Polish)

Perell KL, Nelson A, Goldman RL, Luther SL, Prieto-Lewis N, Rubenstein LZ. 2001. Fall risk assessment measures an analytic review. J Geront A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M761-M6.

Pijnappels M, Delbaere K, Sturnieks DL, Lord SR. 2010. The association between choice stepping reaction time and falls in older adults-a path analysis model. Age and Ageing 39:99-104.

Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA. 1995. Peripheral neuropathy: a true risk factor for falls. The J Geront A Biol Sci Med Sci 50:M211-M5.

Rikli RE, Jones CJ. 2013. Senior Fitness Test Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Rogers MW, Mille ML. 2003. Lateral stability and falls in older people. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:182-7.

Ryushi T, Kumagai K, Hayase H, Abe T, Shibuya K, Ono A. 2000. Effect of resistive knee extension training on postural control measures in middle aged and elderly persons. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 19:143-9.

Skalska A, Gałaś A. 2011. Upadki jako czynnik ryzyka pogorszenia stanu funkcjonalnego w starszym wieku. History of falls as a risk factor for functional decline in the elderly. Gerontologia Polska 19:152-9.

StatSoft Inc. 2011. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. www. statsoft.com.

Stel VS, Smit JH, Pluijm SM, Lips P. 2004. Consequences of falling in older men and women and risk factors for health service use and functional decline. Age and Ageing 33:58-65.

Stewart KJ, Bacher AC, Turner K, Lim JG, Hees PS, Shapiro EP, et al. 2005. Exercise and risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults. Am J Prev Med 28:9-18.

Studenski S, Duncan PW, Chandler J. 1991. Postural responses and effector factors in persons with unexplained falls: results and methodological issues. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:229-34.

Thornby MA. 1995Balance and falls in the frail older person: a review of the literature. Top Geriatr Rahabil 11:35-43.

Tinetti M. E., & Kumar, C. (2010). The patient who falls: “It’s always a trade-off”. Journal of American Medical Association, 303, 258-266.

Tinetti ME, Williams CS. 1998. The effect of falls and fall injuries on functioning in community-dwelling older persons. J Geront A Biol Sci Med Sci 53:M112-M9.

Tinetti ME, Williams FT, Mayewski R. 1986. Fall risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 80:429-34.

Tinetti ME, Gordon C, Sogolow E, Lapin P, Bradley EH. 2006. Fall-risk evaluation and management: challenges in adopting geriatric care practices. Gerontologist 46:717-25.

Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. 1988. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 319:1701-07.

Toraman A, Yıldırım NÜ. 2010. The falling risk and physical fitness in older people. Arch Gerontol Geriat 51:222-6.

World Health Organization 2007. WHO Global Report on Falls Prevention in Older Age. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Yoon JJ, Yoon TS, Shin BM, Na EH. 2012. Factors affecting test results and standardized method in quiet standing balance evaluation. Ann Rehabil Med 36:112-8.

Anthropological Review

The Journal of Polish Anthropological Society

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.71

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.301
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.695

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 36 36 13
PDF Downloads 11 11 7