Longitudinal studies of aging concerning individuals with comparable lifestyle, diet, health profile, socioeconomic status, and income remain extraordinarily rare. The purposes of our ongoing project are as follows: (i) to collect extensive data on biological and medical aspects of aging in the Polish population, (ii) to determine factors affecting the rate and course of aging, (iii) to understand how aging unfolds as a dynamic and malleable process in ontogeny, and (iv) to find novel predictors of longevity. Our investigation followed 142 physically healthy asylum inmates, including 68 males and 74 females, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 years onward. Cross-sectional assessment involved 225 inmates, including 113 males and 112 females. All the patients lived for a very long time under similar and good environmental conditions at the hospital in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province. They maintained virtually the same daily schedule and lifestyle. The rate and direction of changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits were determined using ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis. There were sex differences in the rate and pattern of age-related changes in certain characteristics such as relative weight, red blood cell count, monocyte count, thymol turbidity value, systolic blood pressure, and body temperature. Body weight, the body mass index (BMI), and total bilirubin level increased with advancing age, while body height decreased with age in both sexes. In conclusion, the aging process was associated with many regressive alterations in biological traits in both sexes but the rate and pattern of these changes depended on biological factors such as age and sex. There were only few characteristics which did not change significantly during the period under study. On the basis of comparison between the pattern of longitudinal changes with aging and the pattern of cross-sectional changes with age in the analyzed traits, we were able to predict which pattern of changes is associated with longer lifespan.
Austad SN. 2012. Ageing: mixed results for dieting monkeys. Nature 489:210-11.
Bagga A. 2013. Age changes in some linear measurements and secular trend in height in adult Indian women. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 57:51-8.
Barbi E, Bongaarts J, Vaupel JW, editors. 2008. How long do we live? Demographic models and reflections on tempo effects. Demographic Research Monographs. Berlin: Springer.
Bartke A. 2012. Healthy aging: is smaller better? Gerontology 58:337-43.
Black HR, William JE. 2013. Hypertension: a companion to Braunwald’s heart disease. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.
Blagosklonny MV. 2010. Why the disposable soma theory cannot explain why women live longer and why we age. Aging 2:884-7.
Blagosklonny MV. 2012. Answering the ultimate question “What is the proximal cause of aging?”. Aging 4(12):861-77.
Borysławski K, Chmielowiec K. 2010. Czy wysokość ciała człowieka może być predyktorem długości trwania życia? Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu 577:11-22. (in Polish)
Borysławski K, Chmielowiec K, Chmielewski P, Chmielowiec J. 2015. Zmiany z wiekiem wybranych cech antropometrycznych, fizjologicznych i biochemicznych oraz ich związek z długością życia mężczyzn i kobiet. Monographs of Physical Anthropology Vol. 2. Published online: http://www.org.up.wroc.pl/antropologia/mpa/ (in Polish)
Cava E, Fontana L. 2013. Will calorie restriction work in humans? Aging 5:507-14.
Chang AM, Halter JB. 2003. Aging and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E7-E12.
Chmielewski P. 2015. Wysokość ciała i miesiąc urodzenia a długość życia osób zmarłych w Polsce w latach 2004-2008. Doctoral dissertation. Available at the Jagiellonian Library of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland. (in Polish)
Chmielewski P, Borysławski K, Chmielowiec K, Chmielowiec J. 2015. Height loss with advancing age in a hospitalized population of Polish men and women: magnitude, pattern and associations with mortality. Anthropol Rev 78(2):157-68.
Cornoni-Huntley JC, Harris TB, Everett DF, Albanes D, Micozzi MS, Miles TP, Feldman JJ. 1991. An overview of body weight of older persons, including the impact on mortality. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I - Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol 44:743-53.
Davey A, Lele U, Elias MF, Dore GA, Siegler IC, Johnson MA, Hausman DB, Tenover JL, Poon LW; Georgia Centenarian Study. 2012. Diabetes mellitus in centenarians. J Am Geriatr Soc 60:468-73.
de Magelhães JP, Faragher RGA. 2008. Cell divisions and mammalian aging: integrative biology insights from genes that regulate longevity. BioEssays 30:567-78.
Ferrucci L. 2008. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA): a 50-year-long journey and plans for the future. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 63:1416-9.
Fontana L. 2009. The scientific basis of caloric restriction leading to longer life. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:144-50.
Garagnani P, Giuliani C, Pirazzini C, Olivieri F, Bacalini MG, Ostan R, Mari D, Passarino G, Monti D, Bonfigli AR, Boemi M, Ceriello A, Genovese S, Sevini F,Luiselli D, Tieri P, Capri M, Salvioli S, Vijg J, Suh Y, Delledonne M, Testa R, Franceschi C. 2013. Centenarians as super-controls to assess the biological relevance of genetic risk factors for common age-related diseases: a proof of principle on type 2 diabetes. Aging 5:373-85.
Glei DA, Goldman N, Lin YH, Weinstein M. 2011. Age-related changes in biomarkers: longitudinal data from a population-based sample. Res Aging 33:312-26.
Guarente L, Partridge L, Wallace DC, editors. 2008. Molecular biology of aging. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1st ed., 1-38.
Guo SS, Zeller C, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM. 1999. Aging, body composition, and lifestyle: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am J Clin Nutr 70:405-11.
He Q, Morris BJ, Grove JS, Petrovitch H, Ross W, Masaki KH, Rodriguez B, Chen R, Donlon TA, Willcox DC, Willcox BJ. 2014. Shorter men live longer: association of height with longevity and FOXO3 genotype in American men of Japanese ancestry. PLoS One 9:e94385.
Holzenberger M, Martin-Crespo RM, Vicent D, Ruiz-Torres A. 1991. Decelerated growth and longevity in men. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 13:89-101.
Houston M. 2009. Handbook of hypertension. Wiley-Blackwell, New York
Johnson FB, Sinclair DA, Guarente L. 1999. Molecular biology of aging. Cell 96:291-302.
Kemkes-Grottenthaler A. 2005. The short die young: the interrelationship between stature and longevity - evidence from skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:340-7.
Kirkwood TBL. 2005. Understanding the odd science of aging. Cell 120:437-47.
Kirkwood TBL. 2008a. Healthy old age. Nature 455:739-40.
Kirkwood TBL. 2008b. Understanding ageing from an evolutionary perspective. J Intern Med 263(2):117-27.
Kirkwood TBL. 2010. Why women live longer. Stress alone does not explain the longevity gap. Sci Am 303(5):34-5.
Kirkwood TBL, Kowald A. 2012. The free-radical theory of ageing: older, wiser and still alive. Modelling positional effects of the primary targets of ROS reveals new support. BioEssays 34:692-700.
Ljubuncic P, Reznick AZ. 2009. The evolutionary theories of aging revisited - a mini review. Gerontology 55(2):205-16.
Longo VD, Mitteldorf J, Skulachev VP. 2005. Programmed and altruistic aging. Nat Rev Genet 6(11):866-72.
Malinowski A, Strzałko J, editors. 1985. Antropologia. Warszawa-Poznań: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. (in Polish)
Martin R. 1928. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Erster Band: Somatologie. Jena: Fischer.
Martin R, Saller K. 1957. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. 3rd edition. Stuttgard: Fischer.
Martin-Ruiz C, Jagger C, Kingston A, Collerton J, Catt M, Davies K, Dunn M, Hilkens C, Keavney B, Pearce SH, den Elzen WP, Talbot D, Wiley L, Bond J, Mathers JC, Eccles MP, Robinson L, James O, Kirkwood TBL, von Zglinicki T. 2011. Assessment of a large panel of candidate biomarkers of aging in the Newcastle 85+ study. Mech Ageing Dev 132:496-502.
Mitteldorf J. 2010. Evolutionary origins of aging. In: Fahy GM, editor. The future of aging. Pathways to human life extensions. New York: Springer.
Pérez VI, Bokov A, van Remmen H, Mele J, Ran Q, Ikeno Y, Richardson A. 2009. Is the oxidative stress theory of aging dead? Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-14.
Raina PS, Wolfson C, Kirkland SA, Griffith LE, Oremus M, Patterson C, Tuokko H, Penning M, Balion CM, Hogan D, Wister A, Payette H, Shannon H, Brazil K. 2009. The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Can J Aging 28:221-9.
Rolland-Cachera MF, Cole TJ, Sempé AM, Ticher J, Rossignol C, Charraud A. 1991. Body mass index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 45:13-21.
Rossman J. 1979. The anatomy of aging. In: Rossman J, editor. Clinical geriatrics, 2nd ednition. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Salaris L, Poulain M, Samaras TT. 2012. Height and survival at older ages among men born in an inland village in Sardinia (Italy), 1866-2006. Biodemography Soc Biol 58:1-13.
Samaras TT. 2014. Evidence from eight different types of studies showing that smaller body size is related to greater longevity. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports 3(16):2150-60.
Sanz A, Pamplona R, Barja G. 2006. Is the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging intact? Antioxid Redox Signal 8:582-99.
Schulz R. 2006. The encyclopedia of aging. 4th edition. New York: Springer.
Sebastiani P, Solovieff N, DeWan AT, Walsh KM, Puca A, Hartley SW, Melista E, Andersen S, Dworkis DA, Wilk JB, Myers RM, Steinberg MH, Montano M, Baldwin CT, Hoh J, Perls TT. 2012. Genetic signatures of exceptional longevity in humans. PLoS One 7:e29848.
Shanley DP, Kirkwood TB. 2006. Caloric restriction does not enhance longevity in all species and is unlikely to do so in humans. Biogerontology 7:165-8.
Spirduso WW, Francis KL, MacRae PG. 2005. Physical dimensions of aging. 2nd editions. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Andres R. 1999. Longitudinal change in height of men and women: Implications for interpretation of the body mass index: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Am J Epidemiol 150:969-77.
Sprott RL. 2010. Biomarkers of aging and disease: introduction and definitions. Exp Gerontol 45:2-4.
Stout RW. 1994. Glucose tolerance and ageing. J R Soc Med 87:608-9.
Terry DF, Wilcox MA, McCormick MA, Pennington JY, Schoenhofen EA, Andersen SL, Perls TT. 2004. Lower all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in centenarians’ offspring. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:2074-6.
Weindruch R, Sohal RS. 1997. Caloric intake and aging. N Engl J Med 337:986-94.
Whelan BJ, Savva GM. 2013. Design and methodology of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. J Am Geriatr Soc 61 Suppl 2:S265-8.
Whelton PK. 1994. Epidemiology of hypertension. Lancet 344:101-6.
Willcox BJ, Yano K, Chen R, Willcox DC, Rodriquez BL, Masaki KH, Donlon T, Tanaka B, Curb JD. 2004. How much should we eat? The association between energy intake and mortality in a 36-year follow-up study of Japanese-American men. J Gerontol Biol Sci 59:B789-95.
Wolański N. 2012. Rozwój biologiczny człowieka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. (in Polish)
Yambe M, Tomiyama H, Yamada J, Koji Y, Motobe K, Shiina K, Yamamoto Y, Yamashina A. 2007. Arterial stiffness and progression to hypertension in japanese male subjects with high normal blood pressure. J Hypertens 25:87-93.
Zimniak P. 2012. What is the proximal cause of aging? Front Genet 3:189.
Zyczkowska J, Klich-Raczka A, Mossakowska M, Gasowski J, Wieczorowska-Tobis K, Grodzicki T. 2004. Blood pressure in centenarians in Poland. J Hum Hypertens 18:713-6.