Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences
This review covers universal patterns in facial preferences. Facial attractiveness has fascinated thinkers since antiquity, but has been the subject of intense scientific study for only the last quarter of a century. Many facial features contribute to facial attractiveness: Averageness and symmetry are preferred by males and females, probably because they signal genetic quality and developmental stability. Men prefer highly feminized female faces because they reflect high estrogen levels and low testosterone levels. This indicates that the woman is reproductively healthy. Women, on the other hand, prefer a moderate level of male facial masculinity, since facial masculinity that is too pronounced signals high level of testosterone and, thereby, a poorly developed pro-family personality. In women, facial hair is detrimental to facial attractiveness. In men, the effect is not consistent. Faces with a clear complexion are attractive to both men and women. Men prefer light and smooth skin in women. Positive facial expressions also enhance facial attractiveness. Many factors, in particular skin condition and facial proportions, affect perceived age, which is an important component of facial attractiveness. Men in particular strongly prefer youthful-looking female faces. Facial preferences enable an individual to recognize reproductively fit mates. Therefore, facial preferences are adaptive, although non-adaptive mechanisms related to general brain function also play a role.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Alley T.R., 1993, The developmental stability of facial attractiveness: New longitudinal data and a review, Merrill-Palmer Q., 39, 265-278.
Alley T.R., M.R. Cunningham, 1991, Averaged faces are attractive, but very attractive faces are not average, Psychol. Sci., 2, 123-125.
Baker B.W., M.G. Woods, 2001, The role of the divine proportion in the esthetic improvement of patients undergoing combined orthodontic/orthognathic surgical treatment, Int. J. Adult Orthod. Orthognath. Surg., 16, 108-120.
Barber N., 1995, The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology, Ethol. Sociobiol., 16, 395-424.
Baudouin J.Y., G. Tiberghien, 2004, Symmetry, averageness, and feature size in the facial attractiveness of women, Acta Psychol., 117, 313-332.
Benson P., D. Perrett, 1992, Face to face with the perfect image, New Sci., 133, 32-35.
Berry D.S., 1991a, Accuracy in social perception: Contributions of facial and vocal information, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 61, 298-307.
Berry D.S., 1991b, Attractive faces are not all created equal: Joint effects of facial babyishness and attractiveness on social perception, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 17, 523-531.
Berry D.S., L.Z. McArthur, 1985, Some components and consequences of a babyface, J. Pers. Soc. Psych., 48, 312-323.
Berry D.S., L.Z. McArthur, 1986, Perceiving character in faces: The impact of age-related craniofacial changes on social perception, Psychol. Bull., 100, 3-18.
Bisson M., A. Grobbelaar, 2004, The esthetic properties of lips: A comparison of models and nonmodels, Angle Orthod., 74, 162-166.
Boothroyd L.G., B.C. Jones, D.M. Burt, R.E. Cornwell, A.C. Little, B.P. Tiddeman, D.I. Perrett, 2005, Facial masculinity is related to perceived age but not perceived health, Evol. Hum. Behav., 26, 417-431.
Borkan G.A., A.H. Norris, 1980, Assessment of biological age using a profile of physical parameters, J. Gerontol., 35, 177-184.
Buss D., 1999, Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
Cardenas R.A., L.J. Harris, 2006, Symmetrical decorations enhance the attractiveness of faces and abstract designs, Evol. Hum. Behav., 27, 1-18.
Carello C., A. Grosofsky, R.E. Shaw, J.B. Pittenger, L.S. Mark, 1989, Attractiveness of facial profiles is a function of distance from archetype, Ecol. Psychol., 1, 227-251.
Choe K.S., A.P. Sclafani, J.A. Litner, G.P. Yu, T. Romo, 2004, The Korean American woman's face. Anthropometric measurements and quantitative analysis of facial aesthetics, Arch. Facial Plast. Surg., 6, 244-252.
Costa M., L. Corazza, 2006, Aesthetic phenomena as supernormal stimuli: The case of eye, lip, and lower-face size and roundness in artistic portraits, Perception, 35, 229-246.
Cunningham M.R., 1986, Measuring the physical in physical attractiveness: Quasi-experiments on the sociobiology of female facial beauty, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 50, 925-935.
Cunningham M.R., A.P. Barbee, C.L. Pike, 1990, What do women want? Facialmetric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male facial physical attractiveness, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 59, 61-72.
Cunningham M.R., A.R. Roberts, A.P. Barbee, P.B. Druen, C.H. Wu, 1995, "Their ideas of beauty are, on the whole, the same as ours": Consistency and variability in the cross-cultural perception of female physical attractiveness, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 68, 261-279.
Darwin C., 1871, The descent of man, and selections in relation to sex, John Murray, London.
DeBruine L.M., B.C. Jones, A.C. Little, L.G. Boothroyd, D.I. Perrett, I.S. Penton-Voak, P.A. Cooper, L. Penke, D. Feinberg, B.P. Tiddeman, 2006, Correlated preferences for facial masculinity and ideal or actual partner's masculinity, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 273, 1355-1360.
DeBruine L.M., B.C. Jones, L. Unger, A.C. Little, D.R. Feinberg, in press, Dissociating averageness and attractiveness: Attractive faces are not always average, J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform.
Dion K.K., E. Berscheid, E. Walster, 1972, What is beautiful is good, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 24, 285-290.
Edler R., P. Agarwal, D. Wertheim, D. Greenhill, 2006, The use of anthropometric proportion indices in the measurement of facial attractiveness, Eur. J. Orthod., 28, 274-281.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt I., 1970, Ethology: The biology of behavior, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
Eisenthal Y., G. Dror, E. Ruppin, 2006, Facial attractiveness: Beauty and the machine, Neural Comput., 18, 119-142.
Enquist M., A. Arak, 1993, Selection of exaggerated male traits by female aesthetic senses, Nature, 361, 446-448.
Enquist M., A. Arak, 1994, Symmetry, beauty and evolution, Nature,372, 169-172.
Etcoff N., 1999, Survival of the prettiest: The science of beauty, Anchor Books, New York.
Farkas L.G., 1994, Anthropometry of the attractive North American Caucasian face, [in:] Anthropometry of the head and face, L.G. Farkas (ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 159-179.
Farkas L., I. Munro, J. Kolar, 1987a, Linear proportions in above- and below-average women's faces, [in:] Anthropometric facial proportions in medicine, L.G. Farkas, I.R. Munro (eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, pp. 119-130.
Farkas L., I. Munro, J. Kolar, 1987b, The validity of neoclassical facial proportion canons, [in:] Anthropometric facial proportions in medicine, L.G. Farkas, I.R. Munro (eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, pp. 57-66.
Feinman S., G.W. Gill, 1977, Female's responses to male beardedness, Percept. Mot. Skills, 58, 533-534.
Feinman S., G.W. Gill, 1978, Sex differences in physical attractiveness preferences, J. Soc. Psychol., 105, 43-52.
Ferrario V.F., C. Sforza, C.E. Poggio, G. Tartaglia, 1995, Facial morphometry of television actresses compared with normal women, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 53, 1008-1014.
Fink B., K. Grammer, P.J. Matts, 2006, Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces, Evol. Hum. Behav., 27, 433-442.
Fink B., K. Grammer, P. Mitteroecker, P. Gunz, K. Schaefer, F.L. Bookstein, J.T. Manning, 2005a, Second to fourth digit ratio and face shape, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 272, 1995-2001.
Fink B., K. Grammer, R. Thornhill, 2001, Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color, J. Comp. Psychol., 115, 92-99.
Fink B., N. Neave, 2005, The biology of facial beauty, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 27, 317-325.
Fink B., N. Neave, J.T. Manning, K. Grammer, 2005b, Facial symmetry and the ‘big-five’ personality factors, Pers. Indiv. Differ., 39, 523-529.
Fink B., N. Neave, H. Seydel, 2007, Male facial appearance signals physical strength to women, Am. J. Hum. Biol., 19, 82-87.
Ford C.S., Beach F.A., 1951, Patterns of sexual behavior, Harper, New York.
Frąckiewicz W., 2001, The aesthetics the eyes and mouth position in a three-point face schema, Prz. Antropol. - Anthropol. Rev., 64, 93-100.
Frost P., 1988, Human skin color: A possible relationship between its sexual dimorphism and its social perception, Perspect. Biol. Med., 32, 38-58.
Frost P., 2006, European hair and eye color: A case of frequency-dependent sexual selection?, Evol. Hum. Behav., 27, 85-103.
Gangestad S.W., G.J. Scheyd, 2005, The evolution of human physical attractiveness, Ann. Rev. Anthropol., 34, 523-548.
Getty T., 2002, Signaling health versus parasites, Am. Nat., 159, 363-371.
Ghirlanda S., L. Jansson, M. Enquist, 2002, Chickens prefer beautiful humans, Hum. Nat., 13, 383-389.
Giddon D.B., 1995, Orthodontic applications of psychological and perceptual studies of facial esthetics, Semin. Orthod., 1, 82-93.
Giddon D.B., D.L. Bernier, C.A. Evans, J.A. Kinchen, 1996, Comparison of two computer animated imaging programs for quantifying facial profile preference, Percept. Mot. Skills, 82, 1251-1264.
Grammer K., B. Fink, A. Juette, G. Ronzal, R. Thornhill, 2002, Female faces and bodies: N-dimensional feature space and attractiveness, [in:] Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive, and social perspectives, G. Rhodes, L.A. Zebrowitz (eds.), Ablex Publishing, Westport, pp. 91-125.
Grammer K., B. Fink, A.P. Môller, R. Thornhill, 2003, Darwinian aesthetics: Sexual selection and the biology of beauty, Biol. Rev., 78, 385-407.
Grammer K., R. Thornhill, 1994, Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: The role of symmetry and averageness, J. Comp. Psychol., 108, 233-242.
Guthrie R.D., 1976, Body hot spots: The anatomy of human social organs and behavior, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Halberstadt J., 2006, The generality and ultimate origins of the attractiveness of prototypes, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 10, 166-183.
Halberstadt J., G. Rhodes, 2000, The attractiveness of nonface averages, Psychol. Sci., 11, 285-289.
Halberstadt J., G. Rhodes, 2003, It's not just average faces that are attractive: Computer-manipulated averageness makes birds, fish, and automobiles attractive, Psychon. Bull. Rev., 10, 149-156.
Hatfield E., S. Sprecher, 1986, Mirror, mirror: The importance of looks in everyday life, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.
Hellström Å., J. Tekle, 1994, Person perception through facial photographs: Effects of glasses, hair, and beard, on judgments of occupation and personal qualities, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 24, 693-705.
Hershon L.E., D.B. Giddon, 1980, Determinants of facial profile self-perception, Am. J. Orthod., 78, 279-295.
Hinsz V.B., D.C. Matz, R.A. Patience, 2001, Does women's hair signal reproductive potential, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 37, 166-172.
Honn M., K. Dietz, A. Godt, G. Goz, 2005, Perceived relative attractiveness of facial profiles with varying degrees of skeletal anomalies, J. Orofac. Orthop., 66, 187-196.
Hückstedt B., 1965, Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum "Kindchenschema", Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie, 12, 421-450.
Hume D.K., R. Montgomerie, 2001, Facial attractiveness signals different aspects of "quality" in women and men, Evol. Hum. Behav., 22, 93-112.
Iliffe A.H., 1960, A study of preferences in feminine beauty, Br. J. Psychol., 51, 267-273.
Jansson L., B. Forkman, M. Enquist, 2002, Experimental evidence of receiver bias for symmetry, Anim. Behav., 63, 617-621.
Jefferson Y., 1996, Skeletal types: Key to unraveling the mystery of facial beauty and its biologic significance, J. Gen. Orthod., 7, 7-25.
Jefferson Y., 2004, Facial beauty - Establishing a universal standard, Int. J. Orthod., 15, 9-22.
Jennions M.D., M. Petrie, 1997, Variation in mate choice and mating preferences: A review of causes and consequences, Biol. Rev., 72, 283-327.
Johnston V.S., M. Franklin, 1993, Is beauty in the eye of the beholder, Ethol. Sociobiol., 14, 183-199.
Johnston V.S., R. Hagel, M. Franklin, B. Fink, K. Grammer, 2001, Male facial attractiveness - evidence for hormone-mediated adaptive design, Evol. Hum. Behav., 22, 251-267.
Johnston V.S., C.J. Solomon, S.J. Gibson, A. Pallares-Bejarano, 2003, Human facial beauty: Current theories and methodologies, Arch. Facial Plast. Surg., 5, 371-377.
Johnstone R.A., 1994, Female preference for symmetrical males as a by-product of selection for mate recognition, Nature,372, 172-175.
Jones B.C., L.M. DeBruine, A.C. Little, C.A. Conway, D.R. Feinberg, 2006, Integrating gaze direction and expression in preferences for attractive faces, Psychol. Sci., 17, 588-591.
Jones B.C., A.C. Little, D.M. Burt, D.I. Perrett, 2004a, When facial attractiveness is only skin deep, Perception, 33, 569-576.
Jones B.C., A.C. Little, D.R. Feinberg, I.S. Penton-Voak, B.P. Tiddeman, D.I. Perrett, 2004b, The relationship between shape symmetry and perceived skin condition in male facial attractiveness, Evol. Hum. Behav., 25, 24-30.
Jones B.C., A.C. Little, I.S. Penton-Voak, B.P. Tiddeman, D.M. Burt, D.I. Perrett, 2001, Facial symmetry and judgements of apparent health. Support for a "good genes" explanation of the attractiveness-symmetry relationship, Evol. Hum. Behav., 22, 417-429.
Jones D., 1995, Sexual selection, physical attractiveness, and facial neoteny: Cross-cultural evidence and implications, Curr. Anthropol., 36, 723-748.
Jones D., 1996a, An evolutionary perspective on physical attractiveness, Evol. Anthropol., 5, 97-109.
Jones D., 1996b, Physical attractiveness and the theory of sexual selection, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Keating C.F., 1985, Gender and the physiognomy of dominance and attractiveness, Soc. Psychol. Q., 48, 61-70.
Keating C.F., D.L. Bai, 1986, Children's attributions of social dominance from facial cues, Child Dev., 57, 1269-1276.
Keating C.F., J. Doyle, 2002, The faces of desirable mates and dates contain mixed social status cues, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 38, 414-424.
Kniffin K.M., D.S. Wilson, 2004, The effect of nonphysical traits on the perception of physical attractiveness, Evol. Hum. Behav., 25, 88-101.
Koehler N., L.W. Simmons, G. Rhodes, M. Peters, 2004, The relationship between sexual dimorphism in human faces and fluctuating asymmetry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., (Suppl.)271, S233-S236.
Korthase K.M., I. Trenholme, 1982, Perceived age and perceived physical attractiveness, Percept. Mot. Skills, 54, 1251-1258.
Kowner R., 1996, Facial asymmetry and attractiveness judgment in developmental perspective, J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., 22, 662-675.
Kowner R., 1997, The perception and attribution of facial asymmetry in normal adults, Psychol. Rec., 47, 371-384.
Kowner R., 1998, Effects of social deviance labels on judgements of facial attractiveness: A comparison of labelling procedures using Japanese raters, Int. J. Psychol., 33, 1-16.
Kujawa B., J. Strzałko, 1998, Standard of physical attractiveness, Prz. Antropol. - Anthropol. Rev., 61, 31-48.
Laeng B., R. Mathisen, J.A. Johnsen, 2007, Why do blue-eyed men prefer women with the same eye color?, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 61, 371-384.
Langlois J.H., L.A. Roggman, 1990, Attractive faces are only average, Psychol. Sci., 1, 115-121.
Langlois J.H., L.A. Roggman, L. Musselman, 1994, What is average and what is not average about attractive faces, Psychol. Sci., 5, 214-220.
Law Smith M.J., D.I. Perrett, B.C. Jones, R.E. Cornwell, F.R. Moore, D.R. Feinberg, L.G. Boothroyd, S.J. Durrani, M.R. Stirrat, S. Whiten, R.M. Pitman, S.G. Hillier, 2006, Facial appearance is a cue to oestrogen levels, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 273, 135-140.
Light L.L., S. Hollander, F. Kayra-Stuart, 1981, Why attractive people are harder to remember, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 7, 269-276.
Little A.C., D.M. Burt, I.S. Penton-Voak, D.I. Perrett, 2001, Self-perceived attractiveness influences human female preferences for sexual dimorphism and symmetry in male faces, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 268, 39-44.
Little A.C., P.J.B. Hancock, 2002, The role of masculinity and distinctiveness in judgments of human male facial attractiveness, Br. J. Psychol., 93, 451-464.
Little A.C., B.C. Jones, 2003, Evidence against perceptual bias views for symmetry preferences in human faces, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 270, 1759-1763.
Little A.C., B.C. Jones, 2006, Attraction independent of detection suggests special mechanisms for symmetry preferences in human face perception, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 273, 3093-3099.
Little A.C., I.S. Penton-Voak, D.M. Burt, D.I. Perrett, 2003, Investigating an imprinting-like phenomenon in humans: Partners and opposite-sex parents have similar hair and eye colour, Evol. Hum. Behav., 24, 43-51.
Manning J.T., L.J. Pickup, 1998, Symmetry and performance in middle distance runners, Int. J. Sports Med., 19, 205-209.
Maple J.R., K.W.L. Vig, F.M. Beck, P.E. Larsen, S. Shanker, 2005, A comparison of providers' and consumers' perceptions of facial-profile attractiveness, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 128, 690-696.
Marcus D.K., M.R. Cunningham, 2003, Do child molesters have aberrant perceptions of adult female facial attractiveness?, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol., 33, 499-512.
Mark L., R.E. Shaw, J.B. Pittenger, 1988, Natural constraints, scales of analysis, and information for the perception of growing faces, [in:] Social and applied aspects of perceiving faces, T.R. Alley (ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 11-49.
Mark L.S., J.B. Pittenger, H. Hines, C. Carello, R.E. Shaw, J.T. Todd, 1980, Wrinkling and head shape as coordinated sources of age-level information, Percept. Psychophys., 27, 117-124.
Marquardt S.R., 2002, Dr. Stephen R. on the Golden Decagon and human facial beauty. Interview by Dr. Gottlieb, J. Clin. Orthod., 36, 339-347.
Mason M.F., E.P. Tatkow, C.N. Macrae, 2005, The look of love: Gaze shifts and person perception, Psychol. Sci., 16, 236-239.
Mathes E.W., S.M. Brennan, P.M. Haugen, H.B. Rice, 1985, Ratings of physical attractiveness as a function of age, J. Soc. Psychol., 125, 157-168.
Matoula S., H. Pancherz, 2006, Skeletofacial morphology of attractive and nonattractive faces, Angle Orthod., 76, 204-210.
McArthur L.Z., K. Apatow, 1983/1984, Impressions of baby-faced adults, Soc. Cogn., 2, 315-342.
McArthur L.Z., D.S. Berry, 1987, Crosscultural agreement in perceptions of babyfaced adults, J. Cross. Cult. Psychol., 18, 165-192.
McCabe V., 1984, Abstract perceptual information for age level: A risk factor for maltreatment?, Child Dev., 55, 267-276.
McCall R.B., C.B. Kennedy, 1980, Attention of 4-month infants to discrepancy and babyishness, J. Exp. Child. Psych., 29, 189-201.
McGovern R.J., M.C. Neale, K.S. Kendler, 1996, The independence of physical attractiveness and symptoms of depression in a female twin population, J. Psychol., 130, 209-219.
Mealey L., R. Bridgestock, G.C. Townsend, 1999, Symmetry and perceived facial attractiveness: A monozygotic co-twin comparison, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 76, 151-158.
Mehrabian A., J.S. Blum, 1997, Physical appearance, attractiveness, and the mediating role of emotions, Curr. Psychol., 16, 20-42.
Mesko N., T. Bereczkei, 2004, Hairstyle as an adaptive means of displaying phenotypic quality, Hum. Nat., 15, 251-270.
Monin B., 2003, The warm glow heuristic: When liking leads to familiarity, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 85, 1035-1048.
Moore T., K.A. Southard, J.S. Casko, F. Qian, T.E. Southard, 2005, Buccal corridors and smile esthetics, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 127, 208-213.
Morris D., 1967, The naked ape, Cape Ltd, London.
Mueller U., A. Mazur, 1997, Facial dominance in Homo sapiens as honest signaling of male quality, Behav. Ecol., 8, 569-579.
Muscarella F., M.R. Cunningham, 1996, The evolutionary significance and social perception of male pattern baldness and facial hair, Ethol. Sociobiol., 17, 99-117.
Neave N., S. Laing, B. Fink, J.T. Manning, 2003, Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 270, 2167-2172.
Nguyen D.D., P.K. Turley, 1998, Changes in the Caucasian male facial profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the twentieth century, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 114, 208-217.
Noor F., D.C. Evans, 2003, The effect of facial symmetry on perceptions of personality and attractiveness, J. Res. Pers., 37, 339-347.
Ong E., R.A. Brown, S. Richmond, 2006, Peer assessment of dental attractiveness, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 130, 163-169.
O'Toole A.J., T. Price, T. Vetter, J.C. Bartlett, V. Blanz, 1999, 3D shape and 2D surface textures of human faces: The role of averages in attractiveness and age, Image. Vis. Comput., 18, 9-19.
Pancer S.M., J.R. Meindl, 1978, Length of hair and beardedness as determinants of personality impressions, Percept. Mot. Skills, 46, 1328-1330.
Parekh S.M., H.W. Fields, M. Beck, S. Rosenstiel, 2006, Attractiveness of variations in the smile arc and buccal corridor space as judged by orthodontists and laymen, Angle Orthod., 76, 557-563.
Pearson D.C., P.A. Adamson, 2004, The ideal nasal profile: Rhinoplasty patients vs the general public, Arch. Facial Plast. Surg., 6, 257-262.
Pellegrini R.J., 1973, Impressions of the male personality as a function of beardedness, Psychology, 10, 29-33.
Penton-Voak I.S., J.Y. Chen, 2004, High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans, Evol. Hum. Behav., 25, 229-241.
Penton-Voak I.S., B.C. Jones, A.C. Little, S. Baker, B. Tiddeman, D.M. Burt, D.I. Perrett, 2001, Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 268, 1617-1623.
Penton-Voak I.S., D.I. Perrett, 2001, Male facial attractiveness: Perceived personality and shifting female preferences for male traits across the menstrual cycle, Adv. Study Behav., 30, 219-259.
Penton-Voak I.S., D.I. Perrett, D.L. Castles, T. Kobayashi, D.M. Burt, L.K. Murray, R. Minamisawa, 1999, Menstrual cycle alters face preference, Nature,399, 741-742.
Perrett D.I., D.M. Burt, I.S. Penton-Voak, K.J. Lee, D.A. Rowland, R. Edwards, 1999, Symmetry and human facial attractiveness, Evol. Hum. Behav., 20, 295-307.
Perrett D.I., K.J. Lee, I. Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. Yoshikawa, D.M. Burt, S.P. Henzi, D.L. Castles, S. Akamatsu, 1998, Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness, Nature, 394, 884-887.
Perrett D.I., K.A. May, S. Yoshikawa, 1994, Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness, Nature, 368, 239-242.
Pettijohn T.F., B.J. Jungeberg, 2004, Playboy playmate curves: Changes in facial and body feature preferences across social and economic conditions, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 30, 1186-1197.
Pettijohn T.F., A. Tesser, 1999, Popularity in environmental context: Facial feature assessment of American movie actresses, Media Psychol., 1, 229-247.
Polk M.S., A.G. Farman, J.A. Yancey, L.R. Gholston, B.E. Johnson, 1995, Soft tissue profile: A survey of African-American preference, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 108, 90-101.
Pollard J., J. Shepherd, J. Shepherd, 1999, Average faces are average faces, Curr. Psychol., 18, 98-103.
Reed J.A., E.M. Blunk, 1990, The influence of facial hair on impression formation, Soc. Behav. Pers., 18, 169-176.
Reis H.T., I.M. Wilson, C. Monestere, S. Bernstein, K. Clark, E. Seidl, M. Franco, E. Gioioso, L. Freeman, K. Radoane, 1990, What is smiling is beautiful and good, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 20, 259-267.
Rhodes G., 2006, The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 57, 199-226.
Rhodes G., J. Chan, L.A. Zebrowitz, L.W. Simmons, 2003, Does sexual dimorphism in human faces signal health?, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., (Suppl.)270, S93-S95.
Rhodes G., J. Halberstadt, G. Brajkovich, 2001a, Generalization of mere exposure effects to averaged composite faces, Soc. Cogn., 19, 57-70.
Rhodes G., J. Halberstadt, L. Jeffery, R. Palermo, 2005a, The attractiveness of average faces is not a generalized mere exposure effect, Soc. Cogn., 23, 205-217.
Rhodes G., C. Hickford, L. Jeffery, 2000, Sex-typicality and attractiveness: Are supermale and superfemale faces super-attractive?, Br. J. Psychol., 91, 125-140.
Rhodes G., K. Lee, R. Palermo, M. Weiss, S. Yoshikawa, P. Clissa, T. Williams, M. Peters, C. Winkler, L. Jeffery, 2005b, Attractiveness of own-race, other-race, and mixed-race faces, Perception, 34, 319-340.
Rhodes G., F. Proffitt, J.M. Grady, A. Sumich, 1998, Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty, Psychon. Bull. Rev., 5, 659-669.
Rhodes G., J. Roberts, L.W. Simmons, 1999a, Reflections on symmetry and attractiveness, Psychol. Evol. Gend., 1, 279-295.
Rhodes G., A. Sumich, G. Byatt, 1999b, Are average facial configurations attractive only because of their symmetry?, Psychol. Sci., 10, 52-58.
Rhodes G., T. Tremewan, 1996, Averageness, exaggeration and facial attractiveness, Psychol. Sci., 7, 105-110.
Rhodes G., S. Yoshikawa, A. Clark, K. Lee, R. McKay, S. Akamatsu, 2001b, Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty, Perception, 30, 611-625.
Rhodes G., L.A. Zebrowitz, A. Clark, S.M. Kalick, A. Hightower, R. McKay, 2001c, Do facial averageness and symmetry signal health?, Evol. Hum. Behav., 22, 31-46.
Riedl B.I.M., 1990, Morphologisch-metrische Merkmale des männlichen und weiblichen Partnerleitbildes in ihrer Bedeutung für die Wahl des Ehegatten, Homo, 41, 72-85.
Rikowski A., K. Grammer, 1999, Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 266, 869-874.
Roberts S.C., A.C. Little, L.M. Gosling, B.C. Jones, D.I. Perrett, V. Carter, M. Petrie, 2005a, MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans, Biol. Lett., 1, 400-403.
Roberts S.C., A.C. Little, L.M. Gosling, D.I. Perrett, V. Carter, B.C. Jones, I. Pentonvoak, M. Petrie, 2005b, MHC-heterozygosity and human facial attractiveness, Evol. Hum. Behav., 26, 213-226.
Roney J.R., K.N. Hanson, K.M. Durante, D. Maestripieri, 2006, Reading men's faces: Women's mate attractiveness judgments track men's testosterone and interest in infants, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 273, 2169-2175.
Rowland D.A., D.I. Perrett, 1995, Manipulating facial appearance through shape and color, IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., 15, 70-76.
Rubenstein A.J., 2005, Variation in perceived attractiveness: Differences between dynamic and static faces, Psychol. Sci., 16, 759-762.
Rubenstein A.J., L. Kalakanis, J.H. Langlois, 1999, Infant preferences for attractive faces: A cognitive explanation, Dev. Psychol., 35, 848-855.
Russell R., 2003, Sex, beauty, and the relative luminance of facial features, Perception, 32, 1093-1107.
Scarbrough P.S., V.S. Johnston, 2005, Individual differences in women's facial preferences as a function of digit ratio and mental rotation ability, Evol. Hum. Behav., 26, 509-526.
Scheib J.E., S.W. Gangestad, R. Thornhill, 1999, Facial attractiveness, symmetry, and cues of good genes, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 266, 1913-1917.
Scott C.R., M.S. Goonewardene, K. Murray, 2006, Influence of lips on the perception of malocclusion, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 130, 152-162.
Sergl H.G., A. Zentner, G. Krause, 1998, An experimental study of the esthetic effect of facial profiles, J. Orofac. Orthop., 59, 116-126.
Shackelford T.K., R.J. Larsen, 1997, Facial asymmetry as an indicator of psychological, emotional, and physiological distress, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 72, 456-466.
Simmons L.W., G. Rhodes, M. Peters, N. Koehler, 2004, Are human preferences for facial symmetry focused on signals of developmental instability?, Behav. Ecol., 15, 864-871.
Spyropoulos M.N., D.J. Halazonetis, 2001, Significance of the soft tissue profile on facial esthetics, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 119, 464-471.
Strzałko J., K. Kaszycka, 1988, Atrakcyjność fizyczna - obiektywne i subiektywne składowe oceny, Prz. Antropol., 54, 7-17.
Strzałko J., K.A. Kaszycka, 1992, Physical attractiveness: Interpersonal and intrapersonal variability of assessments, Soc. Biol., 39, 170-176.
Swaddle J.P., J.P.K. Che, R.E. Clelland, 2004, Symmetry preference as a cognitive by-product in starlings, Behaviour, 141, 469-478.
Swaddle J.P., I.C. Cuthill, 1995, Asymmetry and human facial attractiveness: Symmetry may not always be beautiful, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 261, 111-116.
Swaddle J.P., G.W. Reierson, 2002, Testosterone increases perceived dominance but not attractiveness in human males, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 269, 2285-2289.
Symons D., 1979, The evolution of human sexuality, University Press, Oxford.
Tatarunaite E., R. Playle, K. Hood, W. Shaw, S. Richmond, 2005, Facial attractiveness: A longitudinal study, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 127, 676-682.
Thornhill R., S.W. Gangestad, 2006, Facial sexual dimorphism, developmental stability, and susceptibility to disease in men and women, Evol. Hum. Behav., 27, 131-144.
Thornhill R., S.W. Gangestad, R. Miller, G. Scheyd, J.K. McCullough, M. Franklin, 2003, Major histocompatibility genes, symmetry and body scent attractiveness in men and women, Behav. Ecol., 14, 668-678.
Thornhill R., A.P. Môller, 1997, Developmental stability, disease and medicine, Biol. Rev., 72, 497-548.
Tiddeman B., M. Burt, D. Perrett, 2001, Prototyping and transforming facial textures for perception research, IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., 21, 42-50.
Türkkahraman H., H. Gökalp, 2004, Facial profile preferences among various layers of Turkish population, Angle Orthod., 74, 640-647.
Udry J.R., 1965, Structural correlates of feminine beauty preferences in Britain and the United States: A comparison, Sociol. Soc. Res., 49, 330-342.
Valentine T., S. Darling, M. Donnelly, 2004, Why are average faces attractive? The effect of view and averageness on the attractiveness of female faces, Psychon. Bull. Rev., 11, 482-487.
Valenzano D.R., A. Mennucci, G. Tartarelli, A. Cellerino, 2006, Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness, Vis. Res., 46, 1282-1291.
Van den Berghe P.L., P. Frost, 1986, Skin color preference, sexual dimorphism, and sexual selection: A case of gene-culture co-evolution?, Ethnic Racial Stud., 9, 87-113.
Von Fauss R., 1988, Zur Bedeutung des Gesichtes für die Partnerwahl, Homo, 37, 188-201.
Wagatsuma E., C.L. Kleinke, 1979, Ratings of facial beauty by Asian-American and Caucasian females, J. Soc. Psychol., 109, 299-300.
Walster E., V. Aronson, D. Abrahams, L. Rottman, 1966, The importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 4, 508-516.
Waynforth D., S. Delwadia, M. Camm, 2005, The influence of women's mating strategies on preference for masculine facial architecture, Evol. Hum. Behav., 26, 409-416.
Winkielman P., J. Halberstadt, T. Fazendeiro, S. Catty, 2006, Prototypes are attractive because they are easy on the mind, Psychol. Sci., 17, 799-806.
Wogalter M.S., J.A. Hosie, 1991, Effects of cranial and facial hair on perceptions of age and person, J. Soc. Psychol., 131, 589-591.
Yehezkel S., P.K. Turley, 2004, Changes in the African American female profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the 20th century, Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 125, 407-417.
Zajonc R.B., 2001, Mere exposure: A gateway to the subliminal, Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci., 10, 224-228.
Zaidel D.W., A.C. Chen, C. German, 1995, She is not a beauty even when she smiles: Possible evolutionary basis for a relationship between facial attractiveness and hemispheric specialization, Neuropsychologia, 33, 649-655.
Zebrowitz L.A., J.M. Montepare, 1992, Impressions of babyfaced individuals across the life span, Dev. Psychol., 28, 1143-1152.
Zebrowitz L.A., K. Olson, K. Hoffman, 1993, Stability of babyfacedness and attractiveness across the life span, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 64, 453-466.
Zebrowitz L.A., G. Rhodes, 2004, Sensitivity to "bad genes" and the anomalous face overgeneralization effect: Cue validity, cue utilization, and accuracy in judging intelligence and health, J. Nonverbal Behav., 28, 167-185.
Żądzińska E., 2003, Fluctuating asymmetry of some head structures and its possible causes, Prz. Antropol. - Anthropol. Rev., 66, 39-54.